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First Published in 1921 


f "^O a book of this kind, conditioned in size by the 
I series in which it is published, certain definite limits 

ot scope and scale must be set. 

For the purposes of this book jewellery has been defined 
as including all ornaments of wrought or jewelled metal 
actually worn on the person. This definition excludes such 
jewelled objects as croziers, snuff-boxes, and the like, that 
are not worn but carried. Limits of time are also necessary, 
and for these the V century A.D. and the year 1800 have 
been chosen, as marking definite breaks in the artistic history 
of the country. For reasons of space a full consideration 
of the collars and badges of official rank and of the 
national Orders of Knighthood, and of Royal Crowns 
and other coronets, has been omitted. For the same 
reason there is no historical study of the English 
jewellers. The magical aspect of English jewellery has 
been considered in another work, 1 and is here only in- 
cidentally mentioned. 

The making of such a book as this depends to a great 
extent upon the kindness of the curators and officials of 

1 Magical Jewels of the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. (Clarendon Press.) 


museums, and upon the generosity of private individuals in 
allowing jewels from their collections to be published. My 
thanks are due to the officials of the Mediaeval Department of 
the British Museum, the Metalwork Department of the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, the London Museum, the National 
Museum of Antiquities, Edinburgh; the Ashmolean Museum, 
Oxford; the Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge; the University 
Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Cambridge ; the 
Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Dublin; the Liverpool 
Museum ; the Nottingham Museum ; the Saffron Walden 
Museum ; and the Museo Poldi Pezzoli of Milan. Among 
private owners I have to thank His Majesty the King, the 
Duchess of Norfolk, the Duke of Devonshire, the Duke 
and Duchess of Portland, the Earl of Home, the Earl 
of Berkeley, Viscount Falkland, the Bishop of Limerick, 
Sir Arthur Evans, Lady Fuller-Eliott- Drake, Sir George 
Clerk, Lady Read, the Warden of New College, Oxford, 
Miss Shirley, Colonel Croft Lyons, Mrs. Penryn Milstead, 
Mrs. Pfungst, Mr. Dyson Perrins, Miss Reavill, Mr. Smith 
of Elham, Mr. Ayerst Buttery, and Messrs. S. J. Phillips. 
My thanks are due to Sir Hercules Read, Sir Martin 
Conway, Mr. C. F. Bell, Mr. Reginald Smith, Mr. Clifford 
Smith, Mr. Thurlow Leeds, Mr. G. McN. Rushforth, Mr. 
R. Goulding, librarian at Welbeck Abbey, and Mr. J. P. 
Mayne, librarian at Chatsworth, for information concerning 
objects in their care or help on points of detail ; to Dr. G. C. 
Williamson for a most generous gift of photographs of engraved 


ornament ; and to Mr. Clifford Smith for the loan of Colour 
Plate B from his book on Jewellery, and for a photograph of 
the Poldi-Pezzoli Armada jewel. 1 I owe Miss Margaret 
Jourdain many thanks for more than an editor's help. 



1 Plate XIX, 7. 



INTRODUCTION ......... xxvii 








INDEX .......... 157 





Reproduced from " Jewellery " by permission of H. Clifford Smith. 

1. The Lennox or Darnley jewel, made by order of Lady Margaret Douglas in memory of her 

husband Mathew Stuart, Earl of Lennox, d. 1571. Enamelled gold, set with a cabochon 
sapphire. Scottish, second half of the sixteenth century. (His Majesty the King, Windsor 

2. The Drake enseigne (" The Star Jewel ") presented to Sir Francis Drake by Queen Elizabeth. 

Gold, enamelled in red and black, set with diamonds, rubies and opals ; the centre ruby is 
engraved with the royal orb and cross. Late sixteenth century. (Sir Francis Fuller-Eliott- 

3. Miniature case. Gold, enamelled and set with diamonds and rubies. It contain? a lock of the 

hair of Charles I, taken from his coffin. Late sixteenth century. (His Majesty the King, 
Windsor Castle.) 

4 & 6. The Armada jewel, believed to have been presented by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Francis 
Walsingham ; possibly the work of Nicholas Hilliard. Upon the front is a profile bust of 
Queen Elizabeth from the Personal or Garter badge of 1582 on a ground of blue enamel ; 
within is a miniature of Elizabeth by Hilliard, dated 1580. The lid is enamelled on the 
outside with the Ark and the motto " Saevas tranquilla per undas," and on the inside with the 
Tudor rose and " Hei mihi quod tanta virtus perfusa decors non habet eternos inviolata dies." 
The border is of openwork enamelled in blue and white studded with table diamonds and 
rubies, c. 1588. (Mr. Pierpont Morgan.) Reproduced by permission of Dr. Williamson acting 
on behalf of the executors of the late Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan, in accordance with Mr. Morgan's 
instructions. Copyright reserved. 

5. The Drake pendant, presented by Queen Elizabeth to Sir Francis Drake in 1579. Gold, set with 
a cameo in Oriental sardonyx, with the head of a negro in the upper dark layer, and a classical 
head in the light layer behind. The setting is enamelled in red, yellow, blue and green, 
and set with rubies and diamonds, with a cluster of pearls and a pear pearl pendant. 
Behind the cameo is a miniature of Elizabeth by Hilliard, dated 1575. c. 1579. (Lady 

7. Back of the onyx George of Charles II. Painted enamel on gold, in the style of Bouquet. Middle 
of the seventeenth century. (His Majesty the King, Windsor Castle.) 




(Smart Bequest, Fitzwilliam Museum, Cambridge. From autochromes by Miss Olive Edis.) 

1. Watch and chatelaine. Gold, enamelled with figure subjects in natural colours, the watch with 

Morland's Moralist within a circle of pearls, c. 1775. 

2. Watch and chatelaine, by J. Schrapnel. Gold, threaded and set with pearls, the watch and 

medallions of translucent purple enamel set with pearls and diamonds, c. 1770. 

3. Watch and chatelaine, by Francis Perigal. Gold, with medallions of classical subjects in 

grisaille enamel within borders picked out in white and translucent blue and green, c. 1750. 

4. Watch and chatelaine, by Robert Atkins. Gold, with medallions of classical subjects in grisaille 

enamel within borders of pearled white enamel on a ground of translucent orange, c. 1780. 

5. Watch and chatelaine. Gold, enamelled in translucent green with borders of white and pale 

blue, the watch set with a circle of pearls, c. 1775. 



1. Square-headed fibula from Tuxford. Bronze, cast and incised. The lower part is in the shape 

of a horse's head. The disc riveted to the bow is found on Scandinavian brooches of this 
type. Early seventh century. (B.M.) 

2. Cruciform fibula from Sleaford. Bronze, cast and incised. Late sixth century. (B.M.) 

3. Cruciform fibula from Mitchell's Hill, Icklingham. Bronze, cast and incised. Late sixth century. 

(Ashmolean Museum.) 

4. Saucer-shaped fibula from Frilford. Bronze gilt. Spiral decoration. Sixth century. (Ash- 

molean Museum.) 

5. Saucer-shaped fibula from near Abingdon. Bronze gilt. " Chip-carving " decoration. Sixth 

century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

6. Linked pins from the river Witham, near Lincoln. Silver gilt. Incised interlaced decoration ; 

perhaps a Celtic importation. Eighth century (B.M.). 


1. Pendant. Gold, decorated with punched work and set with a garnet. Seventh century. (Ash- 

molean Museum.) 

2. The Sarre brooch. Silver, parcel gilt, decorated with punched work and three doves in the 

round cast in silver. Middle of the sixth century. (B.M.) 

3. Bracteate. Gold, stamped with an interlaced zoomorphic design with a human face in the 

centre. Seventh century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

4. Buckle from Fairford. Bronze gilt, chased with zoomorphic ornament and set with an oblong 

garnet. Seventh century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 


5. Disc from Alton Hall, Bottisham, Cambs. One of a pair, the other at Cambridge. Probably 

used as a breast ornament. Gilt bronze, with interlaced and animal decoration, set with four 
ivory bosses with garnet centres. Middle of the seventh century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

6. Bracteate. Gold, stamped with interlaced and guilloche patterns. Seventh century. (Ash- 

molean Museum.) 

7. Bracteate from St. Giles's Fields, Oxford. Gold, stamped with a design derived from a Roman 

coin. This pendant is probably of Saxon workmanship, but is of a type common in Scandi- 
navia. Middle of the sixth century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

8. Dagger pommel found near Windsor. Silver, with gold face decorated with filigree. Seventh 

century. (Evans Collection, Ashmolean Museum.) 

9. Disc fibula from Faversham. Bronze gilt, set with three garnets and an ivory boss with a 

garnet centre. Seventh century. (Evans Collection, Ashmolean Museum.) 



1. The Kingston brooch (front), found in a woman's grave at Kingston Down, Kent, in 1771. 

The front is decorated with inlaid work of complex form in garnets over hatched foil and in 
dark blue pastes, with ivory bosses, and with gold filigree in debased animal patterns. Begin- 
ning of the seventh century. (Mayer-Faussett Collection, Liverpool Museum.) 

2. Cross-shaped pendant from Ixworth. Gold, inlaid with garnets over hatched foil. Early 

seventh century. (Evans Collection, Ashmolean Museum.) 

3. The Kingston brooch, back. Gold, with a bronze pin, the head set with stones, decorated 

with filigree. (Cf. Plate V, 4.) It is the only disc-fibula known with a geld back ; the orna- 
mental catch is paralleled on a fibula from Wittislingen. 

4. Pendant from the King's Field, Faversham. Gold, decorated with filigree and birds' heads in 

inlaid garnets. Seventh century. (B.M.) 

5. Bead from Forest Gate, Essex. Gold, with garnet and blue paste inlays. Middle of the seventh 

century. (Evans Collection, Ashmolean Museum.) 

6. Disc-fibula from Faversham. Silver, with applied gold plate, decorated with filigree and inlaid 

work in garnets and blue paste. Seventh century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

7. Reliquary cross found in 1827 on the body of St. Cuthbert in Durham Cathedral. Gold, decorated 

with inlaid work in garnets. The central boss held a relic. Middle of the seventh century. 
(Durham Cathedral Library.) 


1-3. The Alfred jewel, found in 1693 at Newton Park, three miles from the Isle of Athelney. 
Gold, the back engraved, set with a plaque of cloisonne enamel representing on a blue back- 
ground the half-length figure of a man in a green tunic, holding a flower in either hand. This 
is covered by a thick plate of crystal held in place by a gold fret of the letters " AELFRED MEC 
HEHT GEWYRCAN " (Alfred ordered me to be made). The jewel ends in a socket in the form 
of a boar's head, decorated with granular filigree. Third quarter of the ninth century. 
(Ashmolean Museum.) 


2. The ring of Ethelswith, sister of Alfred and Queen of Mercia, found near Aberford, Yorks. 
Gold, with a circular bezel, decorated with an Agnus Dei within a quatrefoil in niello. Within 
is the legend " + EATHELSVITH REGNA." Late ninth century. (Franks Bequest, B.M.) 

4. The Minster Lovel jewel, found near Minster Lovel, Oxon. Gold, set with a medallion of 

cloisonne" enamel in opaque green and white, on a dark blue ground, in a setting of filigree. 
c. goo. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

5. Pendant. Gold, with a pearled border, and a cruciform design in filigree with settings for 

garnets. Eighth century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

6 Brooch. Found at Dowgate Hill. Cloisonne enamel in a border of gold filigree set with pearls. 
(? Lombardic.) Tenth century. (B.M.) 

7. Pendant. Gold, with a pearled border and a rosette design in filigree, set with a garnet in the 

centre. Seventh century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

8. Ring of Ethelwulf, King of Wessex, found in 1780 at Laverstock, near Salisbury. Gold, the 

mitre-shaped bezel decorated with two peacocks on either side of a tree, and the inscription 
" EXHELVVLF R." on a ground of niello. Second quarter of the ninth century. (B.M.) 

9. Ring found at Bossington. Gold, with a medallion of a man's head surrounded by the inscrip- 

tion " NOMEN EHLLA FID IN xpo " (My name is Ella, my faith is in Christ) in a border of 
filigree. Ninth century. (Ashmolean Museum.) 

10. Necklace found at Desborough, Northants. Seventeen barrel-shaped and two cylindrical 

beads of spirally coiled gold wire, strung with nine circular pendants of gold with one side 
convex and the other flat, and eight pendants set with oval, square and triangular carbuncles 
in beaded settings. In the centre is an equal armed cross of gold. A similar necklace, without 
the cross, was found in a tumulus on Brassington Moor, Derbyshire. Middle of the seventh 
century. (B.M.) 

11. Ring found in the Nene, near Peterborough. Gold, with two opposed bezels, each engraved with 

three interlaced triangles, the shoulders ornamented " a trois grains." 


1. Buckle from Faversham. Gold, with three gold bosses and decoration in filigree. Seventh 

century. (B.M.) 

2. Buckle from Faversham. Gold, with three gold bosses (one missing) and decoration in filigree, 

the head of the buckle set with garnets. Seventh century. (B.M.) 

3. Buckle from Faversham. Bronze and gold, with three bosses, the plate decorated with a line 

of punching. Seventh century. (B.M.) 

4. Buckle from the King's Field, Faversham. Gold, decorated with filigree. Cf. the back of the 

Kingston brooch (Plate III, 3). Early seventh century. (B.M.) 

5. Buckle from Taplow. Gold, with garnet inlays and filigree decoration. Early seventh century. 


6. Buckle from Crundale, Kent. Bronze gilt, with gold bosses, filigree decoration and inlays of 

small garnets. The fish may be compared with those on jewelled fibulae from Jouy le Comte. 
Middle of the seventh century. (B.M.) 

7. One of a pair of clasps from Taplow. Bronze gilt, with interlaced ornament. Early seventh 

century. (B.M.) 



1-3. Rings of brooches of penannular form, but with the ring closed. Gilt bronze, set with amber. 

I. c. 800 ; 2. Middle of the ninth century. (Collection of the Royal Irish Academy, National 

Museum, Dublin.) 
2. Ring found at Tipperary. Gold, the pointed bezel decorated with raised settings edged with 

twisted and pearled wires, one of which still contains a garnet. ? Ninth century. (B.M.) 

4. Ring of a penannular brooch. Gilt bronze, set with amber and decorated with filigree. Late 

tenth century. (Collection of the Royal Irish Academy.) 

5. Penannular brooch. Silver, decorated with raised bosses and pierced work. (Collection of the 

Royal Irish Academy.) 


Found in 1850 on the beach near Bettystown, co. Louth. White bronze, heavily gilt, chased and 
decorated with recessed panels of gold filigree, cloisonne 1 enamel, niello and inlaid stones. First 
half of the eighth century. (Collection of the Royal Irish Academy.) 



1. The Hunterston brooch. Found in 1826 on the estate of Mr. Robert Hunter, West Kilbride, 

Ayrshire. Decorated with gold filigree and set with amber. The back is inscribed in Runic 
characters with the names " Mealbritha " and " Olfriti." Middle of the eighth century. 
(National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, Edinburgh.) 

2. Penannular brooch. Silver, decorated with raised bosses and engraved lacertine patterns. 

Irish, early tenth century. (Collection of the Royal Irish Academy.) 


1. Ring from Dumfriesshire. The ends of the shank are not joined, but twisted together. Tenth 

century. (B.M.) 

2. Back of the Seal of the Cathedral Chapter of Brechin, with foliated decoration in relief . Thirteenth 

century. (National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland, Edinburgh.) 

3. Ring. Gold, chased with interlaced animals in relief. Late eleventh century. (B.M.) 


4. Seal pendant. An intaglio of a horseman set in a rim inscribed " QUE : TIBI : LEGO : LEGE." 

Thirteenth century. (B.M.) 

5. Episcopal ring of William Wytlesey, Archbishop of Canterbury, d. 5 July, 1374. Gold, chased 

and set with a sapphire. (Sir Arthur Evans.) 

6. Ring brooch. Engraved gold. Late thirteenth century. (B.M.) 

7. Ring brooch from the Londesborough Collection. Gold, ornamented with four hollow bosses 

pierced with dragons and cockatrices, and set with cabochon emeralds and sapphires and 
pearls in raised settings. Late fourteenth century. (B.M.) 

8. Episcopal ring of Henry Woodstock, Bishop of Winchester, 1305-16. A cabochon sapphire set 

in gold. Early fourteenth century. (Winchester Cathedral.) 

9. Episcopal ring. A cabochon sapphire set in gold. Late thirteenth century. (Winchester 


10. Ring brooch. Gold, engraved and set with rubies and sapphires. Late thirteenth century. 


11. Heart-shaped ring brooch. Gold, with floral decoration in relief. Fourteenth century. (B.M.) 

12. Ring brooch. Engraved gold. Fourteenth century. (B.M.) 

13. Ring brooch from Enniscorthy Abbey. Engraved gold, set with two cabochon rubies and four 

small emeralds. Amatory inscription. Fourteenth century. (B.M.) 

14. Ring brooch. Gold, set with small rubies. Fourteenth century. (B.M.) 


1-5. The jewels of William of Wykeham, bequeathed in 1404 to New College, Oxford. End of 
the fourteenth century. 5. The M. jewel. The letter of gold, with alternate emeralds and 
rubies in raised settings. The figures are of gold in full relief, the angel's wings enamelled in 
translucent green. The lilies are enamelled white ; the vase is made of a ruby, with three 
small emeralds on either side. 

1-4. Decorations of the Mitre. Silver-gilt, two quatrefoils set with turquoises, two foliated 
rosettes set with pastes and hinged bands of plaques of basse taille enamel set with 
pearls and crystals. 

6. Triptych. Silver, engraved and parcel-gilt, with St. George and the Dragon in relief. Fourteenth 

century. (V. & A.M.) 

7. Reliquary pendant. Two plaques of translucent enamel, representing a knight and a lady, and a 

combat, set in silver-gilt. Fourteenth century. (V. & A.M.) 

8. Diptych. Two plaques of translucent enamel with the Nativity and the Resurrection on the 

inner, and St. Michael and St. John on the outer side, set in silver-gilt. Fourteenth century. 
(V. & A.M.) 



Made in 1418 by Thomas O'Carryd. Thin plates of silver-gilt, the side panels sewn with pearls, the 
central panel and the borders edged with beading and set with crystals, garnets and other 
stones. On either side of the central panel at the base are niches, with the figures of the Virgin 
and Child and a kneeling bishop. Near the apex beneath crosses of crystal is inscribed " Hoc 


signum crucis erit in codo cum dominus ad judicandum venerit." Round the base is a band 
enamelled in purple, green and blue with the inscription " Cornelius O'Daygh, episcopus 
Limervicensis Anno Domini Mille CCCCXVIII me fieri fecit." Above is the smaller inscription 
" Thomas O'Carryd artifex faciens, 1418." (The Bishop of Limerick.) 



Base Metal. Fourteenth and Fifteenth Centuries. (B.M.) 
1-5. Pilgrims' signs. 

1. St. George. 

2. Pelican. 

3. St. Thomas a Becket. 

4. Wheel of St. Catherine. 

5. Shell of St. James. 
6-10. Retainers' Badges. 

6. Falcon. 

9. Rose and Fetterlock (Edward IV). 
10. Bear and Ragged Staff. (Earl of Warwick.) 



Detail, shewing jewelled coronet, pearl fret, pearl and enamel necklace, and border to dress of 
jewelled gold. 1473-76. (His Majesty the King, Holyrood Palace.) 


1-3. Reliquary pendant. Gold, engraved on one side with St. John and the inscription " A Mon 
derreyne " and on the other with the figure of a bishop, each between flowers of white enamel. 
Fifteenth century. (B.M.) 

2. The Glenlyon brooch, formerly belonging to the Campbells of Glenlyon. Silver-gilt, set with 
pearls in tall turret settings alternating with crystals and amethysts. Inscribed on the back 
" Caspar. Melchior. Baltazar. Consumatum." Scottish, fifteenth century. (B.M.) 

4. Brooch, gold, set with four cabochon sapphires and small pearls. Fifteenth century. (B.M.) 

5. Heart-shaped fermail. Gold, with wreathed decoration. Late fourteenth or early fifteenth 

century. (B.M.) 

6. The Coventry ring. Engraved gold. c. 1490. (See p. 58.) (B.M.) 

7. The Loch Buy brooch, formerly belonging to the Macleans of Loch Buy, Isle of Mull. Silver, 

decorated with coarse filigree and set with a crystal in the centre surrounded by ten river pearls 
in turret settings, c. 1500. (B.M.) 


8. Reliquary pendant found on Reculver Beach. Silver-gilt, engraved with figures of St. John the 

Baptist and St. Catherine, in a wreathed mount, c. 1470. (B.M.) 

9. Ring. Engraved gold set with a pointed diamond. Late fifteenth century. (B.M.) 

10. Ring, said to have been ploughed up at Hatfield, near Hornsea. Gold, the bezel pierced with a 

trefoil. Four oval panels on the hoop are engraved with the Trinity, the Virgin and Child, 
St. George and St. Christopher. Inside is the legend " Gut + got + hunuyu -\- ananizapta." 
Late fifteenth century. (B.M.) 

11. " The Percy Signet," found on the field of Towton. Gold, the bezel engraved with a lion passant 

regardant and the legend " NOW : YS : THUS." Late fifteenth century. (B.M.) 

12. Signet ring. Gold, the bezel engraved with initials in a trefoil. Late fifteenth century. (Fortnum 

Bequest, Ashmolean Museum.) 



1. Covers of a pendant Prayer Book, said to have been worn by Queen Elizabeth. Gold, chased 

and enamelled on a matted ground. One cover shows the worshipping of the Serpent in the 
Wilderness, with the inscription " Make the afyrye serpent an set it up for a sygne that as many 
as are bytte maye lake upon it an lyve ; the other (not illustrated) has the judgment of Solomon, 
with the inscription " Then the King ansuered an sayd Gyve her the lyving child an slaye et not 
for she is the mother thereof." Middle of the sixteenth century. (B.M.) 

2. Design for a bracelet. Hans Holbein, c. 1640. 

3. Design for the cover of a pendant book, with the initials T.W. and I. Hans Holbein, c. 1540. 

4. Pomander case, found by a bargeman in the mud on the south side of the Thames. Twisted gold 

wire, set with pearls. First half of the sixteenth century. (B.M.) 

5. Covers of a book, containing in MS. on vellum the death-bed prayer of Edward VI, worn by 

Queen Elizabeth at her girdle, and given by her to her cousin Lord Hunsdon. Gold, enamelled 
in black and white, with a central rosette in translucent red and green, set with a shell cameo. 
Middle of the sixteenth century. (The Earl of Berkeley.) 

6. Brooch, from a portrait of a lady, begun by Holbein and finished after his death by another hand, 

formerly in the possession of the family of Bodenham of Rotherwas. It is of gold, encircled 
by a wreath, ornamented with the enamelled figure of a lady playing on a lute set with a ruby, 
with a scroll above inscribed " Praise the Lorde for ever more." Cf. Inventory of Jewels for 1630 
(Brewer, Letters and Papers, IV, Pt. 3, No. 9789) : a brooch with " a gentlewoman luting, 
and a scripture about it." c. 1540. (Mr. Ayerst Buttery.) 

7. Detail of cap-border from the portrait of Anne of Cleves, by Hans Holbein in the Louvre. Gold, 

with roses of white enamel with ruby and diamond centres. From a sketch by Walter T. 
Wilson. (V. & A.M.) 

8. Design for a necklace or bracelet, by Hans Holbein, c. 1540. 




1. The crown of Scotland, partly made of the gold and jewels of one of the crowns of Robert 

Bruce taken by Edward I on the field of Methven, remodelled and added to by James V of 
Scotland. The circlet is set with carbuncles, jacinths, amethysts, topazes, crystals and 
Oriental and Scotch pearls. The arches, cresting, mound and cross were added by James V. 
Scottish, early fourteenth century, remodelled c. 1540. (His Majesty the King, Edinburgh 
Castle.) (Copyright R. Inglis, Calton Hill, Edinburgh.) 

2. Detail of belt from the portrait of Queen Mary Tudor, by Johannes Corvus, 1547, in the National 

Portrait Gallery. Gold, enamelled in black and set with rubies, diamonds and pearls. From 
a sketch by Lilian M. Crockford. (V. & A.M.) 

3. Detail of head-ornament from the portrait of Queen Mary Tudor in the possession of the Duke 

of Norfolk. Gold, enamelled and set with rubies and pearls. From a sketch by M. E. Scott 
Coward. (V. & A.M.) 

4. Details of chains from the portrait of Queen Elizabeth by M. Gheeracdts in the National 

Portrait Gallery. Gold openwork, set with rubies, emeralds and pearls. From a sketch by 
Lilian M. Crockford. (V. & A.M.) 



i. Onyx cameo portrait of Queen Elizabeth, mounted as a pendant in gold, enamelled white and 
set with rubies, c. 1560. (B.M.) 

2-3. Ring, made of mother-of-pearl, the shoulders set with a line of rubies mounted in gold. The 
bezel is oval, with E in diamonds and R in blue enamel. It opens to show enamelled bust 
portraits, one of Elizabeth, with a ruby brooch, and one, probably of Anne Boleyn, with a 
diamond brooch. At the back of the bezel is a plate of gold, with an earl's coronet and a 
phoenix in flames, c. 1560. (The Earl of Home.) 

4. The Barbor jewel, said to have been made in commemoration of the deliverance of William 

Barbor from the stake on the accession of Elizabeth. Sardonyx cameo portrait of Queen 
Elizabeth mounted as a pendant in a bevelled setting of gold enamelled in blue, green and 
white, the outer border set alternately with rubies and diamonds surmounted by a crown, with 
a pendant cluster of pearls, c. 1558. (V. & A.M.) 

5. Sardonyx cameo of Queen Elizabeth, mounted as a pendant in gold openwork, enamelled red on 

one side and green on the other, with a pendant pearl. .1560. (Lady Read.) 

6. The Phoenix jewel, bequeathed to the British Museum by Sir Hans Sloane in 1753. A bust of 

Queen Elizabeth cut from the Phoenix badge of 1574 mounted as a pendant in a wreath of red, 
white and Tudor roses with light green stalks and leaves in enamelled gold. c. 1575. (B.M.) 

7. Miniature case, a mother-of-pearl medallion, carved in low relief with the Ark as on the Armada 

medal of 1588, mounted in gold, inscribed on white enamel " Saevas tranquilla per undas " and 
encircled with a band of table-cut rubies, the edge enamelled in translucent red and green and 
opaque white, c. 1588. (Museo Poldi Pezzoli, Milan.) Reproduced from Jewellery by 
permission of Mr. H. Clifford Smith. 


8. Sardonyx cameo mounted in gold, enamelled white and set with rubies, c. 1560. (The Author.) 

9. Medallion pendant and chain. The medal (" Dangers Averted, 1589 ") shews on the obverse 

the bust of Elizabeth, with the inscription " DITIOR IN TOTO NON ALTER CIRCULUS ORBE." 
The reverse shows a bay tree, unharmed by lightning and tempest, flourishing upon an island, 
with the legend " NON IPSA PERICULA TANGUNT." Silver. 1589. (Medal Room, B.M.) 
10. The Wild jewel, said to have been a christening present from Queen Elizabeth. A turquoise 
cameo portrait of Queen Elizabeth mounted as a pendant in open scrolls of enamelled gold, 
set with rubies and diamonds, with three pendant pearls, c. 1570. (Miss Wild ; lent to the 
V. & A.M.) 


1-2. Miniature case, containing a miniature of Queen Elizabeth. The front of gold pierced in a 
scrolling pattern, set with table-cut diamonds, the back decorated in champleve enamel in 
many colours after a design by Daniel Mignot. End of the sixteenth century. (V. & A.M.) 

3. Wedding ring of Sir Thomas Gresham, formerly in the possession of the Thurstons of Weston 

Hall, Suffolk. A gimmel ring, enamelled gold, set with a diamond and a ruby and inscribed 
" Quod Deus coniunxit Homo non separat." c. 1544. (Mr. G. C. Leveson-Gower ; lent to 
V. & A.M.) 

4. Seal of Alexander Seton, Earl of Dunfermline. c. 1555-1622. The back of the seal is of engraved 

gold, and the hinged handle a scrolling fret of gold. End of the sixteenth or beginning of the 
seventeenth century. (Franks Bequest, B.M.) 

5. Ring. Chased gold, set with a jacinth cameo portrait of Queen Elizabeth. Late sixteenth 

century. (B.M.) 

6. Pendant mirror case. Gold, both sides enamelled alike in champleve enamel in black and white 

with blue and green rosettes and white bars. c. 1600. (Waddesdon Bequest, B.M.) 

7. Wedding ring of Mary Queen of Scots and Lord Darnley. Gold, the circular bezel engraved with 

a cipher of M & H linked with a knot. Within the shank is inscribed " Henri L. Darnley, 
1585." (V. &A.M.) 


Found in 1912 under the floor of a cellar between St. Paul's and the Post Office, at a depth of 
16 feet from the present surface level, c. 1610-20. (The London Museum.) 

1. Chain. Emeralds and pearls, set in gold, enamelled white. 

2. Chain. Flowers of white enamel picked out in black with emerald and diamond centres. 

3. Pendant. Pearls, set in gold, enamelled white. 

4. Pendant. Bunches of grapes in carved amethyst, mounted in gold, enamelled white. 

5. Hanging scent bottle. Made of engraved agate plaques, mounted in gold, enamelled white, with 

decoration in black, studded with diamonds and rubies. 

6. Pendant. Garnet briolettes, mouted in gold, enamelled white. 

7. Enamelled back of pendant, set with an antique cameo, with a hanging pearl. 

8. Chain. Flowers of gold, enamelled white, picked out in black with diamond and emerald centres, 

alternating with links in gold, enamelled white, set with turquoises. 

9. Bracelet or part of chain. Facetted amethyst rings joined by links, enamelled white and set 

with diamonds. 




Jeweller to James I. c. 1605. (V. & A.M.) 

1. Design for a pendant, enamelled gold, set with emeralds, with three pendant pearls. 

2. Design for an ear-ring, enamelled gold, set with diamonds, with two pearls and an emerald 


3. Design for a pendant hanging from a rope of pearls, enamelled gold, set with a diamond and a 

ruby and a pendant pearl. 

4. Design for a pendant, a ruby encircled by a snake of enamelled gold, with a pendant pearl. 

5. Design for a pendant, a large emerald and six diamonds, set within a circle of table-cut rubies 

entwined with snakes of gold, enamelled in white and black, with three pendant pearls. 

6. Design for an ear-ring, enamelled gold, set with a ruby, with three emeralds hanging. 



1-3. The Lyte jewel, containing a miniature of James I, by Isaac Oliver, given to Mr. Thomas 
Lyte by James I in reward for compiling a pedigree of the King's ancestry. The rim is set 
with table-diamonds. The pierced cover of enamelled gold is designed with a monogram of I.R. 
studded with table diamonds and is also set with four rose diamonds. The back is decorated 
with champleve enamel in outline in red on a white ground, with the border enamelled alter- 
nately in red and blue. Enamel of identical design occurs on the back of the case of a miniature 
of Charles I, by Peter Oliver, 1626, in the Pierpont Morgan Collection, c. 1610. (B.M.) 

4-5. Ring. Gold, enamelled in outline in white, set with a jacinth, c. 1610. (B.M.) 

6 and 8. Watch, by Daniel Bouquet. The back decorated in email en resille sur verre on a blue glass 
ground, the dial in champleve enamel over a matted ground in a " pea-pod " design, c. 1640. 

7. Miniature case. Gold, with champleve enamel in green over a matted ground, with a " pea-pod " 

design in white after a design by Pierre Firens, 1605-25. It contains a female portrait by 
Peter Oliver, c. 1625. (Dyce Collection, V. & A.M.) 

9-10. Memorial ring for Charles I. Gold, the bezel set with a cluster of seven diamonds. This opens 
to show a skull in white enamel in a shell-shaped cavity, the lid enamelled inside with a 
Tudor rose. Middle of the seventeenth century. (B.M.) 



1-3. Pendant in the shape of a coffin found at Torre Abbey, Devon. Gold, decorated with champleve 
enamel in black in an arabesque pattern. It opens to show a skeleton enamelled white, and is 
inscribed " Through the Resurrection of Christ we be all sanctified." Early seventeenth century. 
(V. & A.M.) 

2 and 4. The Campion pendant. A segment of a narwhal's horn (believed to be that of a unicorn) 
mounted in gold, enamelled in black in an arabesque design. Long in the possession of the 
family of Campion of Danny, it was presented by Lieut.-Col. W. R. Campion, M.P., to the 
Victoria and Albert Museum, c. 1600. (V. & A.M.) 

5-8. Memorial jewels. Late seventeenth and early eighteenth century. (Sir Arthur Evans.) 

5 and 7. Front and back of brooch. A skeleton in gold on a silk ground under crystal, set in 

a rim of garnets. The back enamelled in pink on a white ground. 

6. Memorial slide of Sir Anthony Leake, killed by the French off Malaga, August 13, 1704. 
8. Memorial slide. A skeleton, with the motto "/ rest, J. C." Inscribed on back " Memento 

9. Lesser George. Enamelled gold. Seventeenth century. (V. & A.M.) 

10. Brooch. Marcassites set in silver, with three pendant pearls. Late seventeenth century. (Miss 


11. Lesser George. An sardonyx cameo, set in a rim of eight rose cut stones spaced by loops of 

metal, said to have belonged to the Earl of Strafford. (Once lent by the late Sir J. C. Robinson 
to the V. & A.M.) 


1. Back of an enamelled miniature of Oliver Cromwell, decorated with roses and leaves in champleve 

enamel in natural colours on a white ground. Middle of the seventeenth century. (University 
Galleries, Ashmolean Museum.) 

2. Watch, by Daniel Bouquet. Enamelled in colours with a flower pattern in the style of Gilles 

Legare in low relief on a black ground. The cover is similarly enamelled and set with a circle 
of diamonds. The inside of the lid and the dial are decorated with landscapes in painted 
enamel, c. 1640. (B.M.) 

3. Back of a miniature case, decorated with flowers in painted enamel on a white ground. Middle 

of the seventeenth century. (Mr. Dyson Perrins.) 

4 and 6. Watch, by Henry Jones. White enamel, painted with flowers in natural colours, with 
radiating lines of garnets set in gold. c. 1670. (B.M.) 

5. Brooch. White enamel painted with flowers and scrolls, set with a pearl and lines of rubies set 
in gold. c. 1670. (Miss Reavill). 

7 and 9. The Dallas jewel, bequeathed as an heirloom by James Dallas in 1683. A locket, the 
front set with concentric rows of triangular diamonds round a square-cut stone. The back 
decorated with a pierced enamel border and medallion of champleve enamel, in a flower 
pattern in colours on a white ground, c. 1670. (The Duchess of Portland.) 

8. Watch. Decorated with flowers in champleve enamel, c. 1670. (V. & A.M.) 




1. Watch and chatelaine, by Thuilst, engraved with the arms of Queen Anne. Pierced and chased 

gold, inlaid with mother-of-pearl, which in its turn is set with red stones in a border of gold, 
enamelled in black, picked out in red. c. 1705. (Smart Bequest, Fitzwilliam Museum.) 

2. Back of miniature case. Gold, chased with scrolls and a cipher of J.K. on a matted ground. 

c. 1710. (V. & A.M.) 

3. Chatelaine, pinchbeck. The top decorated with Cleopatra dissolving the pearl for Antony, the 

lower plaques with baskets of flowers. Chatelaines with the same tops and different plaques 
are in the V. & A.M. and the London Museum, c. 1710. (The Author.) 

4. Outer case of a watch, by Stringer, given by James II to the Countess of Anglesey. Pierced and 

engraved gold, set with curved plates of cornelian, with a cornelian cameo in the centre, c. 1687. 

5. Chatelaine, etui and thimble cases, pinchbeck. Decorated with scrolls, floral patterns and 

classical heads and figures in low relief on a matted ground, c. 1720. (V. & A.M.) 

6. Case of a watch. Gold, chased and set with diamonds and rubies and flat plaques of lapis lazuli. 

c. 1700. (Mr. Dyson Perrins.) 



1. Watch and chatelaine, by Francis Perigal. Gold, enamelled en taille d'epargne in blue in a 

flower pattern in the style of S. H. Dinglinger. c. 1760. (Smart Bequest, Fitzwilliam Museum.) 

2. Scent bottle. Gold, chased and enamelled in colours on a matted ground. 0.1740. (V. & A.M.) 

3. Watch and chatelaine, by James Rowe. Gold, chased and embossed with rocaille decoration and 

scenes from the story of Alexander. Hall-mark for 1753. (Smart Bequest, Fitzwilliam 

4 and 6. Memorial locket. Gold, partly enamelled in black, enclosing figures of Cupids over hair 

under glass. Inscribed " Dorcas Byrne : ob. 16 : /lg, 1757. Aetat. 67. This I make for her 

sake. My dear Mother. Dorcas Byrne, obt. 16. Augt., 1757. Etat. 67." (The Author.) 
5. Chatelaine. Copper gilt, pierced work in the Chinese style. Probably Sheffield manufacture. 

c. 1760. (The Author.) 
7 and 8. Designs for brooches, S. H. Dinglinger, A New Book of Designs for Jewellers' Work, London, 



1. Design for a cross pendant. J. Guien. A Book of Ornaments for Jewellers. 1762. 

2, 3 and 5. Designs for ear-rings. T. D. Saint. A New Book of Designs for Jewellers' work. 1770. 
4 and 6. Designs for chatelaines. S. H. Dinglinger. Op. cit. 1751. 

7 and 10. Designs for brooches. Ibid. 

8 and 9. Designs for necklaces. T. D. Saint. Op. cit. 1770. 




1. Bracelet. Silver, with oval medallions of red paste with applique decoration in marcassites, 

joined by bows and sprays set with marcassites. c. 1760. (Miss Reavill.) 

2. Brooch. Set with diamonds and emeralds, c. 1790. (Mrs. Pfungst.) 

3. Design for a buckle. Jean Guien. A Book of Ornaments for Jewellers. 1762. 

4. Brooch. Silver, with ovals of blue paste with applique decoration in marcassites, mounted with 

bows and sprays set with marcassites. c, 1760. (Miss Reavill.) 
5 and 9. Designs for the front and back of a miniature case, with the royal crown. J. Guien. 

Op. cit. 1762. 
6. Pendant. Sardonyx cameo of the Prince of Wales's feathers and motto, mounted in silver, set 

with diamonds and emeralds. Middle of the eighteenth century. (B.M.) 
7 and 8. Giardinetti rings. Gold, set with diamonds and rubies, c. 1750-75. (B.M.) 


i. Watch and chatelaine. Silver, set with marcassites, the back of the watch of crystal with 

applique decoration in marcassites. c. 1771. (Smart Bequest, Fitzwilliam Museum.) 
2 and 3. Buckles. Set with cut steel, c. 1770. (Mrs. Penryn Milsted.) 

4. Ear-ring. Set with marcassites. c. 1760. (Miss Reavill.) 

5. Necklace. Silver, the links set with marcassites on both sides, c. 1770. (Miss Reavill.) 

6. Bracelet. Linked plaques of cut steel, c. 1790. (Miss Reavill.) 



c. 1780. (Miss Reavill.) 

I and 3. Chatelaines of " Marcaroni " shape. 

2, 4 and 6. Clasps. 

5. Chatelaine with pendant scent bottle. 




i and 3. Designs for ear-rings set with pearls, c. 1800. (V. & A.M.) 

2. Brooch. Wedgwood plaques set in Sheffield plate, c. 1785. (Nottingham Museum.) 

4. Memorial ring. Gold, the marquise bezel rimmed with pearls and containing hair. c. 1790. 

(Fortnum Bequest, Ashmolean Museum.) 

5. Brooch. A butterfly set a jour with diamonds, c. 1800. (Messrs. S. J. Phillips.) 

6. Clasps of a pearl necklace, with a classical figure design in gold over blue enamel, set in a 

border of small diamonds, c. 1780. (The Author.) 

7. Fob ring. Gold, chased with grapes and vine leaves, set with a violet topaz, c. 1790. (B.M.) 

8. Brooch. Gold, set with diamonds applied to a ground or flat pastes in dull pink, opal and dark 

green, with a border of pearls, c. 1790. (Mrs. Pfungst.) 

9. " Regard " ring. Seven shanks of purled gold wire joined by a bezel, set with a ruby, emerald, 

garnet, amethyst, ruby and diamond, c. 1800. (B.M.) 

10. Ring. Gold, set with a moss agate in a border of jargoons. c. 1780. (Fortnum Bequest, 

Ashmolean Museum.) 

11. Design for a necklace set with pearls, c. 1800. (V. &. A.M.) 

12. Ring set with two heart-shaped milk agates, with a rim and crown of jargoons. c. 1780. 

(Fortnum Bequest, Ashmolean Museum.) 


NATIONS have characters as well as individuals, 
and though it may be conceded that the English 
nation is susceptible to foreign influences in the 
domain of art, she yet sets her own stamp upon everything 
she produces. England is not pre-eminent in artistic 
creation ; her strength lies in giving an appropriate and 
individual form to foreign models in applying them to the 
use of her own national type. 

This country is therefore dependent on external stimulus 
in artistic production. Such an impulse is given when the 
craftsman is brought into contact with the work of an earlier 
civilization or with an alien culture of his own time. This 
may arise through an extension of his relations with other 
countries or through the influence of a new school of art in 
a familiar land. Migration, invasion, commerce, political 
relations and archaeological research may each offer a fresh 
stimulus to his creative faculty. Such influences, if acceptable 
to the national character, may be so modified as to become 
a part of the artistic tradition of the race. 

A young and vigorous nation gains the most fruitful and 
lasting impulses from nations at a higher stage of civilization 
than its own. Oriental art influenced the ornament of the 
peoples of Gothland, Sweden, and Ireland by way of the 



trade route from the Caspian Sea to the far West of Europe 1 
at a time when Eastern art had developed the artistic tradition 
of the ancient world and the Teutonic and Celtic races had 
not yet attained to an advanced civilization of their own. 
English art of the ensuing period owed its character to 
another impulse from the East, combined with another 
echo of the classical tradition, at a time when the Norman 
kingdoms linked Europe from Iceland to Sicily. The 
succeeding Gothic style le style franqais spread from the 
He de France to inspire English builders to create their own 
Gothic art, ruled by the symbolism that French philosophers 
and French mystics inherited from the fathers of the Church 
and made an endowment for Christendom. In the XV 
century the painters of the Low Countries rediscovered the 
beauty that lies in the world as it is, and the close relations 
between England and the Netherlands brought their Natural- 
ism to our congenial soil. 

The pure classical tradition came to England with the 
New Learning ; and its artistic impulse, received first from 
Italy, then through the Low Countries, then from France, 
and finally again more directly from its original source, gave 
rise to the four phases of English Renaissance art. Classical 
learning and classical art became for Europe in the XVII 
and XVIII centuries what Scholasticism and Gothic art 
had been in the Middle Ages ; but as Naturalism crept in 
in the XV century, so another change overspread the art 
of the Georgian age. The chinoiseries of the Far East and 

1 A route traceable by the discovery of Mohammedan coins of 880-1100 A.D., together 
with ornaments of contemporary local fabric. 


the archaistic art of the Romantic and Celtic movements in 
the XVIII and XIX centuries shew the desire for a vigorous 
and primitive inspiration in the place of the classical formulae 
of the academic schools. 

England has, then, been influenced by art movements 
arising from both cultured and primitive sources. Roman 
soldiers, monks of Irish race and Byzantine learning, Norman 
adventurers, Crusaders who had seen the splendours of the 
East, French craftsmen, English merchants, Flemish de- 
signers, German painters, Italian sculptors, Spanish and 
Dutch kings, Oriental travellers, and the dilettanti of her 
own aristocracy, have all added from the rich store of other 
countries to the artistic tradition of England. Finally she 
was able to turn back to more primitive conditions, to see 
natural beauty in a new light, and, appreciating her own 
historic past, to draw new inspiration from the days of 
Celtic monasticism and the age of chivalry. 

No artistic impulse can find expression unless the artist 
has leisure from the pressure of war and famine ; consequently 
prosperity and security are apt to give a country artistic 
influence over less fortunate lands at the same level of civiliza- 
tion. England has enjoyed a steady political and industrial 
development : even her invaders have carried on the con- 
tinuity of her national history. Her artistic progress has 
rarely been arrested by inner upheavals or devastating foreign 
wars at a late and settled stage of her civilization ; and, 
because of her relative isolation, her art has been national 
and not provincial. None the less, though her own develop- 
ment has rarely been impeded by material conditions, she 


has reacted little on other countries. She did not take the 
lead among European nations until the Industrial Revolution 
at the beginning of the XIX century drove individual crafts- 
manship out of many of the minor arts, and changed their 
organization and their processes together with the standards 
and structure of society. 

The study of any of the minor arts in England has a 
double thread of interest : the recognition of the foreign 
influences affecting these arts and the definition of the 
national turn of style that persists through all such influences. 
The art of jewellery offers a field of study of peculiar interest. 
Jewels are usually produced to meet the needs of the most 
cultivated classes of the community, and reflect their tastes 
and the degree of their civilization. Further, the art of 
jewel-making is almost independent of the exigencies of 
structure and function, and an infinite variety of invention 
can be expressed in its design. Thus it tends to be both 
aristocratic and national. On the other hand, since its technique 
is almost universally known, and its materials are little affected 
by local conditions, it responds quickly to foreign influences, 
which readily reach an art of which neither the craftsman's 
tools nor his creations are difficult to transport from one place 
to another. Further, the freedom of its design imposes no 
limit to the inspiration it may receive from the plastic and 
graphic arts or from the forms of architecture. Thus the 
history of the jewellery of any country mirrors its social and 
artistic history on a small scale, and shews all the stages of 
the endless conflict between national character and foreign 


Jewellery, like other arts, has less splendour and breadth 
of treatment in England than in Spain. Italy is our mistress 
for beauty, France for grace, and the Low Countries for 
originality of design ; yet there is something peculiarly to our 
English taste in the productions of our nation, at almost 
every period of her history. We can enjoy in them sound 
and sometimes exquisite workmanship, the permanent satis- 
faction of design suited to the practical uses of that which 
it adorns, and a domestic and friendly beauty which appeals 
to us as much as the most splendid productions of an alien 





I HERE is one period in the history of every nation 
when the minor arts, notably those wrought in precious 
metals, are more advanced than the greater arts of 
architecture, sculpture and painting. These can only develop 
in a fixed abode with a security of tenure that in its turn im- 
plies stability of political organization. When these are lacking 
the craftsman devotes his highest skill to the decoration of 
smaller objects that can survive the exigencies of an unsettled 
or nomadic life. The tribes of the Great Migrations were at 
this stage of artistic development ; with them the crafts of 
the metal worker and jeweller were far in advance of arts 
which had to be practised on a larger scale. 

The style and technique of these minor arts are not neces- 
sarily developed in the course of a nomadic life, but usually 
owe much to the traditions of more settled peoples. There is 
no decorative motive employed in the Germanic art of the 
migration period that does not owe its origin to classical, 
Oriental, or pre-Christian Celtic art. Roman culture pene- 
trated into Germany and Gothland, a steady stream of Oriental 


influence flowed across Europe from the South-East, and in 
Britain late Celtic art survived the partial Romanization of 
the country to contribute something to pagan Anglo-Saxon 
art and much to that of the period when South was linked to 
North and West by the bonds of a common religion. 

Such decorative motives received a characteristic twist at 
the hands of the alien workmen who employed them, and 
technical processes were modified by craftsmen who did not 
inherit their full tradition. Out of many foreign elements 
there arose styles of decoration unmistakably different from 
their antecedents. Teutonic social organization was not 
national, and Teutonic art in its variety and inconsistency re- 
flects the character of the tribal society whose needs it served. 
It should be studied in detail, and in close relation to the 
locality which produced it; a more general survey can only 
distinguish the different elements of design and technique to 
be found in use among the Teutonic tribes, and cannot record 
their local permutations. 1 

Britain in the Anglo-Saxon period differed from the 
Teutonic provinces of the continent in the relation between 
her Saxon civilization and her Roman past. Many of the 
Roman cities of England were blotted out of existence by the 
invaders, and the Teutonic villages avoided for the most part 
the sites of Roman settlements and the line of Roman roads. 
Thus England lost her Roman provincial tradition more 
thoroughly than did the adjacent continental countries. 
Although the re-established importance of the Roman cities 

1 A more comprehensive treatment of Anglo-Saxon goldwork is attempted by Baldwin 
Brown, in The Arts in Early England, Vols. Ill and IV. 


of York, London, Lincoln, Canterbury and Winchester in 
the VI and VII centuries, and the re-integration of Western 
towns such as Exeter and Gloucester in the national life 
brought a part of the Roman structure of the country into 
being once more, it must be recognized that England was 
more backward than the Continent in consequence of the 
weakening of her social, political and artistic links with 
Imperial Rome. 

None the less, classical models of design left their mark 
upon Anglo-Saxon art. Roman coins influenced not only 
the Saxon coinage, but also the figure work of the Anglo- 
Saxon minor arts. They formed the source of design of 
such pendant medallions as the bracteate found in St. Giles's 
Fields, Oxford (Plate II, 7), even though the classical model 
might be received from a Scandinavian intermediary. The 
full-face head that appears in a more or less debased form 
on Anglo-Saxon work (Plate I, 3) probably takes its 
origin from the classical Medusa head. Roman architecture 
endowed Anglo-Saxon art with such decorative motives as 
the guilloche (Plate II, 6), and egg-and-dart pattern, and 
provincial Roman wood-work with patterns in the style of 
chip-carving. (Plate I, 5.) Classical influence is again 
evident in the decoration of saucer-shaped brooches from 
Sussex and the Southern Midlands, 1 of which the patterns 
are nearly all modifications of those employed in Roman 
mosaics. (Plate I, 4, 5.) 

Britain was never wholly under Roman domination. In 
Ireland and in Britain, North of the Roman wall, a Celtic 

1 Baldwin Brown, op. cit., Ill, 312. 


culture endured untouched to influence Anglo-Saxon art even 
in the pagan period and to become pre-eminent when enriched 
by Christianity. Variations of the trumpet patterns, the knot 
work, and the flamboyant scrolls of Celtic art appear on 
many Saxon jewels (Plate II, 4 ; V, 5), though they are rarely 
treated with the masterly delicacy of the Irish craftsman. 

The third stream of foreign influence that runs through 
the heart of all the Teutonic tribes is of Eastern origin, fed 
from many sources, but rising in the South Russian lands 
north of the Black Sea. The conventionalized animals 
which twist in an almost unrecognizable pattern on Anglo- 
Saxon goldwork can trace their descent from the griffins 
of the Treasure of the Oxus of the IV century B.C., and the 
leopards and eagles of the Treasure of Petrossa of the IV 
century A.D. 1 

These Oriental motives of decoration were accepted by 
the Goths, and by them transmitted to the other Teutonic 
peoples. In their movement westward the rich animal-forms 
became stylized and debased, till they ceased to have any 
relation with Nature, and were lengthened and disproportioned, 
twisted and interlaced, simply as ornament to fill a given 
space. Sometimes the jaws are as long as the limbs ; some- 
times the head has almost disappeared, and the anatomy of 
the beast is forgotten in the craftsman's desire for pure 
decoration. 2 This style came into use in England about 500 ; 
but the little doves of the Sarre brooch (Plate II, 2) shew 
that even in the middle of the VI century Anglo-Saxon art 

1 See O. M. Dalton, The Treasure of the Oxus and Archczologia, 2nd Series, VIII, 
1902, p. 231. 

2 See Plate II, 5. For a full account see Salin, Altgermanische Thierornamentik. 



could produce some natural animal-forms. At the beginning 
of the VII century the animal-forms were seriously degraded 
though rarely interlaced, 1 but in the subsequent evolution 
of the style down to its disappearance in the XI century, 
the intertwining of the distorted limbs and bodies became 
the dominating feature of the design. (Plate II, 5.) 

The technique of Anglo-Saxon gold-work is definitely in 
advance of its design. It was inherited with many of the 
decorative motives it served to express from Roman and 
Oriental sources. The Saxon minor arts vary in theme 
and style from district to district, and the confines of these 
variations are as difficult to determine as the relations of the 
tribes are hard to define. The one definite distinction that 
is supported alike by historical, social, legal, numismatic and 
archaeological evidence is that between the Jutish tribes of 
Kent, who appear to have definite relations with the Rhine- 
land itself, and the Anglian settlers elsewhere, who shew 
affinities with the peoples of the country lying between Rhine 
and Elbe. This distinction is clearly evident in gold-work. 
The two characteristic processes of inlaid work in garnets 
and of filigree in gold represent a tradition not brought from 
the North, but received along the Southern shores of England 
on its arrival in the West along the valleys of the Danube and 
the Rhine. Jewels so decorated have only been found in 
Kent and the Isle of Wight, and in places in trading 
connexion with these districts. A political reason for their 
gradual distribution after the end of the VI century may be 
found in the extension of the authority of Ethelbert of Kent. 2 

1 Seethe Kingston brooch, Plate III, i. 2 Archceologia, LXIII, p. 192. 


Verroterie cloisonnfa, or the inlaying of flat pieces of 
pastes or precious stones in cells on a metallic ground, was 
practised in Egypt as early as the twelfth dynasty, and thence 
spread through the East. From Persia it passed into the 
knowledge of the Gothic tribes, 1 as is shewn by the discovery 
of an inlaid pendant with a Pahlavi inscription in a Prankish 
grave at Wolfsheim. The inlaid style of ornament was 
probably first introduced to the Gothic peoples in the 
II century. It followed their gradual migration westward, 
and adorns the Visigothic treasures of the IV century found 
at Petrossa and at Szilagy Somlyo. 2 

This style of decoration reached Western Europe at the 
end of the V century. For the first half of the VI 
century very small garnet inlays, closely set over hatched 
gold foil, in a single plane, were used (see Plate III, 2); 
in the second half of the century greater freedom in spacing, 
in relief, and in choice of stones culminated in the elabora- 
tion of the Kentish style of the VII century, of which 
the Kingston brooch is the most famous example. (Plate 
III, i, 3.) Pastes of a contrasting colour, usually blue, and 
round bosses of ivory or some like substance were commonly 
introduced among the garnets, which were somewhat larger 
than those employed in the early work. 

The other characteristically Kentish technical process is 
filigree work in gold. It is sometimes found as the sole 
decoration of a jewel, and sometimes in conjunction with 
inlaid work in garnets or pastes. Such granular filigree, 

1 See Archceologta, LVIII, 1902, p. 237. E. Molinier, Histoirc des Arts appliques a 
f Industrie, II, p. 17. 2 See Baldwin Brown, op. cit. Ill, p. 527. 



together with gold wire plaited and soldered down, was used 
by both classical and Oriental goldsmiths, but it seems probable 
that it was imitated by the Anglo-Saxons from Roman work. 
Like the inlaid work in garnets, filigree reached its highest 
development in England in the VI and VII centuries. 
Work such as that of the Windsor dagger pommel (Plate 
II, 8) has not been surpassed in any age. But after the 
VII century the art declined: the empty and straggling 
filigree work seen on certain bracteates (Plate IV, 5) is 
invariably a sign of late date. Its effect was early imitated 
in repousse", and in stamped or moulded beading, in which 
much of the brilliance of effect is lost. 1 

Elsewhere in England the simpler technical processes used 
for subsidiary ornament in Kent were developed as the sole 
decoration of jewels. Casting was carried out with consider- 
able skill, and bracteates and ornamented plates for application 
to brooches were struck from moulds. Though advanced 
repoussd work was little practised, stamping and punching 
were commonly used to decorate simple work with good 
effect. (Plates V, 3; II, i.) 

The forms of jewels in use in England from the V to the 
VII centuries are as complex as their design and technique. 
The most important are the fibula or brooch, and the buckle. 
The simple fibula is found among the tribes of Central 
Europe at a very early date, certainly by the beginning of 
the XI century B.C. Through their migrations it became 
known in many parts of the Continent, and underwent varied 
developments in different hands. Eventually the late Roman 

1 Cf. Plate V, i ; and imitations of the same style in Plate II, 3 and 4. 


types came to be adapted by the barbarians in all parts of 
the Empire, and in their turn suffered many changes. Thus 
the types of brooch in use in Anglo-Saxon England were 
developments in some cases characteristic of this country 
of certain barbarian types of the V century. 

Anglo-Saxon brooches may be divided into the following 
types: circular disc brooches generally jewelled found in 
the graves of the Saxon and Jutish tribes of Kent and 
the Isle of Wight (e.g. Plate III, i, 3) ; brooches of concave 
or saucer shape, found among the Saxons of Berkshire, 
Oxfordshire, and Gloucestershire (e.g. Plate I, 5, 6); the 
cruciform fibulae of the Angles of Mercia, East Anglia, and 
Northumbria (Plate I, 2, 3), horse-headed ("square-headed") 
fibulae (Plate I, i), annular brooches (Plate II, 2), such 
North Gaulish types as S-shaped, bird-shaped, and radiated 
fibulae, and the Scandinavian tortoise-shaped brooches. 
The attribution of many of the former types to particular 
countries or tribes can only be general, and one more 
useful than strictly accurate ; the saucer-shaped brooch in 
particular is no longer considered to be purely West Saxon 
in character. 1 

The Kentish circular fibula which was probably a 
feminine ornament is unsurpassed on the Continent for 
elaboration and beauty. Three types of it are known, of 
which the existing samples mostly date from the VII century. 
The first is a brooch made of two superimposed plates, with 
the pin fixed at the back of the lower one, and the upper 
surface of the other divided into cells for the reception of 

1 Archceologia, LXIII, 1912, p. 159. 

; ., 



slabs of gems or paste. The finest and best known example 
of this type is the Kingston brooch. (Plate III, i, 3.) 

The second type is generally made of bronze or silver, 
into which is fitted an upper disc divided into cells arranged 
in geometric patterns, often decorated with three or more 
smaller bosses grouped round a central one. A fine example 
of this type is the Abingdon brooch in the Ashmolean 
Museum. (Plate II, 5.) 

The third and simplest type is a single disc of metal 
ornamented with pastes or stones and work in relief; the 
decorative scheme of this type is often a central boss with 
three radiating arms. The edge of the jewel is usually corded 
or ribbed. A few fine examples of this type are decorated 
with gold filigree and inlaid work in garnets and blue pastes 
(Plate 111,6); a simpler version, of fairly common occurrence, 
is decorated with three red pastes and a central boss of bone. 
(Plate II, 9.) 

Annular brooches consist of a ring crossed by a pin, 
which either travels round it on a small cylindrical ring or is 
fastened hinge-wise to a constriction of it. The most beautiful 
Saxon example of this comparatively rare type is the Sarre 
brooch in the British Museum. (Plate II, 2.) 1 Another has 
recently been found at Alfriston, and is now in the Lewes 

Many brooches of concave or saucer shape have been 
found, generally in pairs, in the graves of both men and 
women in West Saxon cemeteries. It is a type which 

1 See Victoria. County History, Kent, I, p. 46. For a fine example from Uncleby, see 
Victoria County History, Yorkshire, Frontispiece No. 3. 


probably originated in England at the time when the centre 
of Teutonic culture was shifted there from North Germany. 
While found chiefly in Wessex, its diffusion is too widespread 
to allow of its being a type peculiar to the West Saxons, as it 
has frequently been found in the Eastern Midlands and in 
Cambridgeshire. It appears to have been in use to the North 
and East of Bedford prior to 571, the earliest date at which 
intercourse with Wessex was possible. 1 The saucer-shaped 
brooches are always of bronze or copper, and have sometimes 
been gilt. (Plate I, 4, 5.) The edge, which springs out at 
a sharp angle from the central plate, is always left plain. 
A few examples are formed of two metal plaques joined by 
the rim, and while some have a slightly concave disc decorated 
with gilt-foil and covered with geometrical compartments, the 
greater number are made of a single piece of incised metal. 
Both geometric and zoomorphic designs are found ; on the 
whole the former is better represented on the Western side in 
common with the true saucer type, while animal designs and 
the "applied" type are more characteristic of Eastern England. 
After the end of the VI century Kentish influence, conse 
quent on the rise of Ethelbert to power, becomes apparent 
in the designs, some of which imitate the grouped bosses 
familiar in Kentish work. 

The cruciform fibula a development of the Swedish 
elongated fibula is rarely found outside England. When 
it first arose, probably in the V century, it was of simple 
form. It never lost this primitive character, and however 
elaborate in design was always wrought out of a mass of 

1 Archceologia, LXIII, 1912, p. 159. 





metal and never set with glass or stones. It is a type hardly 
ever found in the South of England. The examples illus- 
trated in Plates I, II and III shew its general form and the 
varied ornament characteristic of the later examples. 

Of the types of brooches which are not indigenous to 
England, those in the shape of an S and those decorated 
with birds' heads were probably imported from northern Gaul. 

The radiated, or, as it is sometimes called, the digitated, 
fibula is probably a V century development. It is really 
a compound of two styles ; the upper part is rectangular or 
semi-circular, with radiating projections, generally five in 
number ; the lower portion, joined to it by a curved bow, 
varies considerably in form, but is frequently lozenge-shaped. 1 
This fibula, which is sometimes found in conjunction with the 
bird-shaped type, is comparatively rare in England, and is 
hardly ever found outside Kent. 

Some early cruciform brooches of English and Scandi- 
navian origin end in the head of an animal generally considered 
to be that of a horse, and a later Jutish development of the 
square-headed brooch ends in a large elongated horse-head 
with prominent eyes. This type is rarely set with stones, but 
the pear-shaped eyes and other parts of its characteristic 
ornament may be stone settings copied in metal. It was 
probably as a rule first cast in metal and afterwards incised. 
A particularly large and fine example was found in Emscote 
Road, Warwick, and is now in the museum of the Warwick 
Natural History and Antiquarian Society, and others have 
been discovered in Leicestershire and the adjoining counties. 

1 J. de Baye, Industrial Arts of the Anglo-Saxons, p. 40. 


A brooch found at Tuxford, Nottinghamshire (Plate I, i), 
probably of VI century date, has a disc riveted to the bow ; 
somewhat similar examples have been found in Scandinavia, 
and at Sarre and Bifrons in Kent. In graves at Bifrons the 
horse-headed type of brooch has been discovered worn with 
the point upwards, as the Celts wore their penannular brooches. 

" Tortoise-shaped " brooches, that is brooches shaped like 
an highly convex elliptical shield, have been found in the 
Eastern parts of England. They are a purely Scandinavian 
type, commonest in the later years of the X century. In 
England they are never found in cemeteries, but usually on 
the coast or near the great rivers and roads, which suggests 
that they were not manufactured here but imported by 
Scandinavian invaders. 

The buckle is related to the brooch in function, and has 
certain analogies with the ring-brooch in shape. It is a 
typically Teutonic ornament, of which the history can be 
traced through the series of Teutonic graves. The English 
type with the richest decoration has a buckle-plate of rec- 
tangular or triangular form joined to the buckle and once 
riveted to the belt. This, at first a practical addition to 
strengthen the point of greatest strain on the leather, became 
an admirable field for ornament. It might be filled with a 
single flat stone 1 or be ornamented with a single stone in 
a chased setting. (Plate II, 4.) Even more beautiful decora- 
tion is found on plates in the form of a long isosceles triangle, 
which are usually ornamented with three bosses in relief. 
(Plate V, 1-3, 5, 6.) The rest of the space is often decorated 

1 e.g. Buckle from Tostock, Evans Collection, Ashmolean Museum. 



with filigree, and is sometimes set with garnets in inlaid work. 
A buckle from Taplow (Plate V, 6) is remarkable for the 
figure of a fish in relief, enhanced with granular filigree, that 
lies along the centre of the plate. Animal decoration of 
relatively naturalistic sort is also used on a buckle with a very 
small orifice in the Gibbs Collection (Plate V, 4) decorated 
with rams' heads in plaited filigree. 

In a primitive age it is natural that useful jewels, such as 
brooches and buckles, should be the most important. Neck- 
laces and pendants, however, are almost universal savage 
ornaments, since both combine decorative and magical uses. 
The pendant in its original form is the simplest of all prophy- 
lactic jewels ; the magical stone, tooth or shell, is pierced and 
hung round the neck by a thread or thong, 1 and is succeeded 
by a metallic ornament, often set with stones that are con- 
sidered to combine beauty and magical efficacy. A necklace 
is in origin a series of such ornaments threaded together. 

The most characteristic Anglo-Saxon pendants are the 
bracteates, which derive their circular shape and some 
elements of their decoration from Roman coins. This form 
reached England from Scandinavia, and dates from the 
middle of the V to the middle of the VII century. The 
design is usually much debased from its classical original. 
Kentish cemeteries have yielded pendants with more beautiful 
decoration, sometimes recalling that of the circular brooches. 
(Plate III, 4; Plate II, i ; Plate IV, 7.) Late examples of 
this type sometimes display cruciform designs (Plate IV, 5), 
and several cross-shaped pendants of the VII century are 

1 For Anglo-Saxon examples, see Magical Jewels. 


known. The British Museum has one from Bacton, Norfolk, 
with a gold coin of Mauricius (c. 500) struck at Aries, in the 
centre, surrounded by a wreath of flat garnets over hatched 
foil ; and another from Wilton, near Methwold, Suffolk 
centred by a gold coin of Heraclius I (615-641), with the 
rays of the cross and the rim of the coin enriched with garnets 
similarly foiled. Another East Anglian example found at 
Stanton, near Ixworth, Suffolk, now in the Evans Collection 
in the Ashmolean Museum (Plate III, 2), has the entire 
cross set with flat garnets in geometric cloisons of gold. One 
similarly set was found in the grave of St. Cuthbert at 
Durham, when it was opened in 1827, and is now in the 
Cathedral Library. (Plate III, 7.) The junction of the arms 
is decorated with a cabochon in a raised setting, that lifts to 
disclose a cavity for a relic. 

If Roman influence is evident in Anglo-Saxon pendants, 
it is equally obvious in Anglo-Saxon necklaces. The bead- 
necklaces, of glass of Roman type, of terra-cotta with vitreous 
incrustations, of Kimmeridge coal and jet, amber, and 
amethystine quartz, show many traces of classical influence 
in their shapes, their graduation and their stringing. Even 
stronger Roman influence is shown in necklaces found at 
Desborough (Plate IV, 10), and Brassington Moor. These 
have round, square, oval and triangular carbuncles in gold 
settings with long barrel-shaped loops, and are threaded with 
barrel-shaped beads of twisted wire-work. The Desborough 
necklace has an equal-armed cross as its central ornament. 

The later developments of gold-work in England followed 
the spread of Christianity through the country. First intro- 


duced by British, Irish, Gallo- Roman and Prankish mission- 
aries, and then propagated by Irishmen such as Aidan and 
Saxons like Chad, Cuthbert and Wilfred, the Catholic faith 
united all the elements of the nation in a new relation. 

The influence of the new religion on the arts in England 
was profound and widespread. It created new needs for them 
to fulfil, it brought new motives of decoration for them to 
express, and as the Christian faith spread northward in the 
VII and VIII centuries a new consistency of style began to 
spread through the decorative art of these islands through the 
bond of a common faith. 

The boundaries of Christendom and of the Roman 
Empire are nearly conterminous. Ireland and Armenia were 
the only countries which early accepted the Christian faith 
but had never endured the Roman yoke, and each contributed 
original and national elements to Christian art. In Ireland 
the traditions of pagan Celtic art were still living when the 
country accepted the new faith, and its flamboyant designs 
were combined with new motives from foreign sources in the 
service of the Church. Dominance in art passed from the 
Teutonic to the Celtic peoples with the rise of Christian 
Celtic art. 

The end of the VIII century and the whole of the IX 
was a dark age for Christianity in England. The Vikings 
brought peril, and were near to bringing destruction to the 
Church in England. Cuthbert's church at Lindisfarne was 
destroyed in 793, and up to the sack of Canterbury in ion 
the English Church enjoyed little peace. Meanwhile Ireland 
became for a time the Western centre of Christendom, and 


scholars " flocked like bees ' : to the schools of Durrow and 
Armagh, the universities of the West. Celtic art shared in 
the national renaissance. The development of scholarship 
gave a new importance to parchment and quill, and the 
illumination of manuscripts led to the evolution of patterns for 
the decorative arts in stone and metal. Regular compart- 
ments and open recessed panels were filled with exquisite 
interlaced work, and zoomorphic patterns of lacertine monsters 
and long-billed birds. The rich and varied ornament was 
controlled by a strong sense of line, proportion and relief; 
the ancient traditions of pagan Celtic art remained too strong 
for any barbarian roughness to survive in the refinement of 
the Christian Celtic style. The skill of Irish artists passed 
beyond the seas; the best Continental craftsmen of the IX 
century came from the Irish foundation of St. Gall. 1 

The trumpet, spiral, animal and interlaced designs of 
Christian Celtic art lend themselves peculiarly well to the 
technique of goldsmiths' work, which had indeed been the 
mistress art in Ireland in the pagan period. The Ardagh 
chalice, the Bell-shrines, and many penannular brooches 
remain to represent the magnificence and beauty of Christian 
Celtic metal work, which, with the other branches of Celtic 
art, reached its golden age in the VIII century. 

The Celtic artist had different traditions and a different 
civilization from his Saxon contemporary. Celtic gold-work 
has few jewelled settings save occasional studs of amber, and 
no inlaid-work in garnets, but is greatly superior to English 
work in its chasing, engraving, filigree and enamel. The 

1 Texier, Dictionnaire d 1 Otfevrerie Chretienne, I, p. 29. s.v. Abbaye. 



cleavage between Celtic and Saxon work is emphasized by 
the difference of form in the jewels as well as in their decora- 
tion. The characteristic Celtic jewel is the penannular 
brooch, 1 which is common in Ireland and Scotland, occasion- 
ally found in Northern England and unknown in the South. 
It is probably derived from a pin with a wire bent in a circle 
through the head, such as is sometimes found in Ireland. 
Some of these pins have the ring joined and flattened at the 
bottom to the shape of the later penannular brooches. 2 The 
characteristic feature of the penannular brooch is that the ring 
has a break in it (hence its name) and that the pin is con- 
siderably longer than the diameter of the ring. This pin 
was inserted in the fabric at two points close together, and 
pushed through till the long end was exposed ; this was 
put through the break in the ring, which was then given 
a turn through a right angle in the plane of the stuff. The 
pull of the stuff then kept the brooch in place. The two 
contemporary representations of the penannular brooch in 
use, and the way in which it is still worn by the women of 
Algeria, 3 shew that it was worn with the pin pointing upwards 
at an angle of about thirty degrees to the horizontal, with 
the split in the ring at the side where the heavy weight of 
the finials would naturally make it fall. 

The penannular form is found at an early date in Ireland. 
Some VI century examples are of comparatively small size, 
and have the ends of the ring terminating in birds' heads. 
Later the finials became broader and flatter, and so shaped 

1 See J. Romilly Allen, Celtic Art, p. 216 seq. 

* Cf. Wilde, Catalogue of the Museum of the Royal Irish Academy, Fig. 464. 

8 J. Romilly Allen, Celtic Art, p. 224. 



that only their outside edge conforms to a circle. These 
finials are often shewn issuing from the mouths of birds' 
heads, as in the silver-gilt ring of a penannular brooch of 
about 800 in the museum of the Royal Irish Academy. 
(Plate VI, i.) This shews the tendency to close the ring 
and make it only an ornamental appendage of the pin, which 
arose as soon as the decoration of the brooch became of 
more importance than its practical use. The next stage is 
seen in another example from the same collection (Plate VI, 
3) ; the border and finials are joined by three bars and the 
birds' heads have disappeared. Both of these brooches are 
ornamented with interlaced and conventional designs of great 
beauty in low but sharp relief, which, with the raised rims, 
bosses, and settings, give play of light and shade to the 
whole. The most beautiful of existing penannular brooches, 
the Tara brooch, is now thought to be of the first half of 
the VIII century. (Plates VII and VIII.) It illustrates 
a type in which the ring is completely closed, while keeping 
the shape of the broad flattened finials, and the pinhead is 
flattened and expanded. The ring and pinhead are of white 
bronze, heavily gilt, and are divided into recessed panels of 
gold filigree in exquisite interlaced designs, and further 
decorated with enamel, niello, 1 inlaid gems, and chasing and 
engraving on the bronze base. The outer curve of the con- 
joined finials and the angles of the pinhead are ornamented 
with small projections, some in the shape of birds' heads. 
A plaited chain of " Trichinopoly " pattern, some few inches 

1 Latin nigellum ; a black compound of silver, copper, borax and sulphur, fusible at 
a low temperature, and applied to metal, usually silver, in the same way as enamel. 



in length, is attached to one side of the brooch by a socket 
decorated with human, animal and birds' heads. The corre- 
sponding socket and chain are lost. The back is decorated 
with borders of trumpet pattern and of a row of birds, and 
with panels of interlaced lacertine monsters and spirals such 
as can be paralleled in the nearly contemporary Book of 
Kells. The whole brooch is covered with varied and beauti- 
ful ornament and minute workmanship. 

The Hunterston brooch, less splendid but of similar 
type, found in 1826 at West Kilbride, Ayrshire, is now in 
the National Museum of Antiquities of Scotland. 1 (Plate 
IX, i.) The edge of the closed finials of the ring does 
not form a true half circle, but is a little broadened. The 
pinhead and the wide part of the ring are set with circular 
pieces of amber, and decorated with interlaced and zoomor- 
phic designs in granular and plaited filigree. The back is 
inscribed in Runic characters with the names of two of the 
former owners, Maelbritha and Olfriti. 

Many other penannular brooches have been found in 
Scotland, and some of Irish origin have been discovered 
in Norway. The conservative type, in which the opening 
in the ring is not filled up, is represented by the larger Rogart 
brooch which was found in 1868 in a railway cutting. 2 The 
finials as in some Irish examples are discs of quatrefoil 
shape, decorated with a circular central setting of amber, 
surrounded by a border divided into four compartments, each 
of which is filled with a plate of gold tooled in an interlaced 

1 Anderson, Scotland in Early Christian Times, 2nd series, p. 2. 

* Ibid., p. 7. Sometimes called the Cadboll brooch, from its original owner, Mr. 
Macleod of Cadboll. 


pattern. From each of the four semicircular spaces beyond 
this border rises the neck and head of a bird, with the bill 
resting on the ground. Another bird appears opposite the 
orifice. The smaller brooches found at the same time are 
similar in type but simpler in design. 

Examples of late date shew the ring again opened, and 
terminating in broad flat finials issuing from birds' heads 
of debased design. (Plate IX, 2.) Some good early X 
century examples in the Royal Irish Academy have a plain 
round working half to the ring and a pin with a cylindrical 
head, the finials being decorated with plain raised bosses 
rising from a ground of interlaced lacertine ornament. In 
later examples of the same century the finials are more angular 
in form and simpler in decoration. A pierced example of the 
late X century is shewn in Plate VI, 5. 

Apart from the penannular brooches the number of Irish 
personal ornaments of the Christian period is relatively small. 
Two or three rings of Christian Celtic workmanship are 
known (Plate VI, 2), but the most interesting jewel is 
probably the Clonmacnois pin, 1 consisting of a silver pin, a 
short coupling bar decorated in niello, and a kite-shaped 
pendant decorated with a cruciform design in paste and 
filigree ending in the head of a boar. 

If we turn from Celtic work of the VIII and IX 
centuries to contemporary English work we find definite 
traces of Irish influence and a marked absence of the Caro- 
lingian style. Such an ornament as the triple pin from 
Lincoln (Plate I, 6) may be an importation, but in 

1 Romilly Allen, Celtic Art, p. 221. 



unmistakably English work more subtle traces of Celtic 
influence are to be found. The Alfred jewel 1 (Plate IV, 
i, 3) is one of the monuments of English history, but its 
form, proportions, and size are like those of the Clonmacnois 
pinhead, though it is slightly broader and heavier in form. 
The decoration of the front of the jewel is also alien from 
Anglo-Saxon tradition: it is covered by a thick crystal slab 
beneath which is a plaque in cloisonne* 2 enamel representing 
the half-length figure of a man robed in a tunic of translucent 
green on a blue background, bearing in either hand a flower- 
like object which resembles the trefoil-headed sceptre 
sometimes found in Celtic art. 3 

The back of the jewel is engraved with a form of tree 
design recalling the detail of some early illuminated manu- 
scripts. The sides are filled with a pierced fret, holding the 
edges of the crystal slab, of the letters of the inscription 
"ALFRED MEC HEHT GEWYRCAN*' (Alfred ordered me to be 
wrought). The narrow end of the jewel terminates in a 
socket in the shape of a boar's head decorated with granular 
filigree, recalling the finial of the Clonmacnois pin. This 
socket seems too slender to receive a rod in proportion to the 
size and weight of the jewel; it may have supported some 
ring-like appendage from which hung fine chains like those of 
the Irish pin. 4 Some doubt has been expressed whether the 

1 See J. Earle, The Alfred Jewel and Victoria County History of Somerset, I, p. 378. 

2 Cloisonne or cell enamel has the partitions between the fields of enamel made of 
thin strips of metal bent into the required shape and fixed to the ground. 

8 O. M. Dalton, Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of London, Vol. XX, 
1904, p. 70. 

* Many other theories have been put forward as to the use of the ornament. It has 
been explained as an amulet, an explanation which gives no information as to the way in 


jewel is of English origin, since cloisonne' is rare in England 
at this date ; but the fact that the enamel is much coarser than 
Byzantine or Lombardic work makes it seem probable that 
it was made in this country at a time when enamel had been 
reintroduced to craftsmen who were already skilled metal- 
workers. Another piece of cloisonne' enamel that offers 
certain analogies with the Alfred jewel and is of contemporary 
fabrication is the Minster Lovel jewel, also in the Ashmolean 
Museum. (Plate IV, 4.) A brooch of about the same date 
found at Dowgate Hill (Plate IV, 6) has also been claimed 
as English, but the fineness of its workmanship offers so 
strong a contrast to that of the Alfred jewel and so many 
analogies with undoubtedly Lombardic work (such as the 
Castellani brooch) that the attribution seems very doubtful. 
The cross of Edward the Confessor, discovered when his 
tomb was accidently broken in at the coronation of James II, 
appears from its description to have been of Byzantine 
workmanship, and it is probable that many such easily 
portable objects found their way to England. 1 

Late Saxon work offers further analogies with Celtic 
jewellery in its use of niello, such as is seen on the ring of 

which it was worn ; a pendant, in which case the figure would presumably be head down- 
wards ; the cestel, or decorated end of the roller of a manuscript, for which a spherical 
object seems more suitable ; the end of a stylus, for which it would be unwieldy ; the head 
of a sceptre ; the crest of a helmet ; and the top of a ceremonial staff used in battle ; or of 
a choir-master's pointer or baculus cantoris. 

1 See "A true and perfect narrative of the strange and unexpected finding of the 
crucifix and gold chain of that pious prince, St. Edward the King and Confessor, which 
was found after 620 years' interment and presented to his most sacred Majesty King 
James II, by Charles Taylour, gent. London, printed by J.B., and are to be sold by 
Randal Taylor, near Stationers Hall, 1688," and Evelyn, Diary, for September 16, 1685. 
The relic was lost by James II on his abdication (see " Particulars regarding the escape of 
James II" Britannic Magazine V, 1797) and is said to have been sold by auction by 
Mr. Donovan, a well-known naturalist, in 1830. Its further fate is unknown. 





Ethelwulf, King of Wessex (Plate IV, 8), which, like the 
Alfred jewel, is inscribed with the owner's name "ETHELVVLF R." 
Its design of two peacocks, affronted on either side of a 
conventional tree, is one familiar in early Christian art ; and 
the same influence is evident in the ring of Ethelswith, sister 
of Alfred and Queen of Mercia. (Plate IV, 2.) This has 
a circular bezel ornamented with an Agnus Dei engraved 
in relief within a quatrefoil border. To the same category 
belongs a IX century ring in the Ashmolean Museum (Plate 
IV, 8), with the bezel chased with a man's head surrounded 
by the inscription " NOMEN EHLLA FID IN XPO " (My name is 
Ella ; my faith is in Christ). 

The establishment of Christianity in the Saxon kingdoms 
did much more for art than add to its types of decoration ; 
many of the monks were skilled craftsmen, and of these a 
certain number were workers in metal. St. Dunstan himself 
is said to have been a goldsmith a ring thought to have 
been made by him is recorded in the Liber Quotidianus of 
Edward I l - and Brednothus and Elsinus, Abbots of Ely, 
and Richard, Abbot of St. Albans, were famed in early times 
as skilled goldsmiths. 2 St. Albans in particular was a centre 
of influence in the goldsmith's art, and a monk from there, 
named Ankere or Anketill, was invited by the King of 
Denmark to come to his court on account of his skill. 3 The 
shrines, reliquaries and vessels of the Church were made of 
wrought and jewelled gold, and the vestments of the priests 
were decorated with pearls, pastes, precious stones, and 

1 Ed. Nichols, p. 348. 

2 Texier, Dictionnaire (TOrfevrerie Chretienne. s.v. Anketill. 

3 Herbert, Livery Companies of London, p. 126. 


enamels fastened to the ground of rich stuff. Even in the 
time of Canute, Leoffine, Abbot of Ely, gave to his church a 
splendid alb with the stole and maniple fashioned of gold 
and precious stones. 1 The influence of the Church alone 
prevailed to maintain the arts, which suffered a definite de- 
cline in the Viking age of the X century. Comparatively 
few jewels of this date exist, and these shew the richness 
of the earlier period in neither form nor decoration. A 
typical Northern form is a penannular brooch, often of great 
size with pins nearly two feet long, with the finials of the 
ring in the shape of hatched globes with a flat end, like 
thistles. 2 Another type is represented by a brooch found 
at Cuxtone, now in the British Museum, decorated with an 
eagle fighting a dragon, with the inscription " AELFGIW MEAH ' : 
(Alfgiva owns me). It may possibly have belonged to 
Emma, wife of Ethelred the Unready and of Canute. 

A brooch of pewter with a medallion centre decorated 
with a floriated cross, in the Guildhall Museum, and a large 
brooch of the late XII century found at Canterbury 3 with 
a medallion in the style of Edgar's coinage, both have rims 
made of many concentric rings of pearled ornament, a form 
of decoration perhaps derived from the similar circles of 
pearls strung on wires found on Byzantine and Lombardic 
jewels. Analogies with this form of decoration may be found 
in the X century cast metal beads (such as some of melon 
shape in incised pewter in the Guildhall Museum), that are 

1 Acta S. Etheldredce. Thomas of Ely. Acta Sanctorum Junii IV, 530. 

2 A fine example of this type, found at Newbiggin Moor, near Penrith, Cumberland, 
is in the British Museum. 

3 Vwtoria County History, Kent, Vol. I, Fig. 27. 


cast together in a manner recalling the long beaded tubes 
of Scandinavian necklaces. 1 Strong Scandinavian influence 
is again evident in such decoration as that which appears 
on a IX century pendant from Saffron Walden, to which a 
close parallel can be found on brooches of the Viking period 
from Hornelund, near Varde in Jutland. 2 

The end of the Saxon period, then, shews English gold- 
work subject to Celtic, Scandinavian, and even Byzantine 
influences. East and West are linked by a brooch 3 of this 
date found in Ballycottin Bog, near Youghal, in the form 
of a cross of incised gilt bronze, set in the centre with a 
paste inscribed in Cufic with the Mohammedan confession 
of Unity, " There is no God but God." 

Had the course of history given these influences time 
to become a part of a living art practised under settled 
conditions, the development of the English Romanesque 
style might have produced an art at once traditional, beautiful 
and national ; but the life of the nation suffered so great 
a change with the advent of the Norman invaders that such 
later developments of the Saxon style never came to fruition. 

1 See du Chaillu, The Viking Age, p. 307, f. 1177. 

2 See Baldwin Brown, op. cit., Plate XVI, 4. 

3 Now in the British Museum. 




conquest of England by William of Normandy 
makes a definite break in the artistic history of this 
country. The Saxon tradition had already been weak- 
ened by the Scandinavian dominance of the Viking Age, and 
now the Scandinavian tradition in its turn was superseded by 
a fresh artistic impulse, brought by the invaders, that again 
combined classical, Oriental and Northern elements in a new 
and fruitful proportion. 

The relation between England and the Continent was 
greatly changed. The Norman kingdoms linked Europe 
from Iceland to Sicily, and fused the pointed arch of Islam 
and the basilica of Rome in such Northern edifices as Durham 
Cathedral. The Catholic Church united Christendom through 
the religious houses, and by its direction of men's com- 
bative instincts into the field of crusading and missionary 
enterprise brought the countries beyond Christendom within 
men's sphere of knowledge. The gradual establishment of 
feudalism in Europe, and the consequent development of 
political theory and judicial knowledge, made yet another link 
between the nations. Ways of communication were estab- 
lished and protected, and the organization of international 

commerce began. 



At the beginning of the period, however, England lagged 
behind the Continent. She had her own problems to solve, 
and it was only through their solution that she could attain 
national life. She had never fully shared in the Carolingian 
tradition, and under the Norman dynasty, in spite of her close 
connection with France, she was neither so rich nor so secure 
in her civilization as the continental country. Her art was 
not so prolific, and kept more survivals from earlier and more 
barbaric styles. 

Since the custom of burying objects with their owner 
gradually died out after the establishment of Christianity, our 
direct knowledge of the jewellery of the Norman period is 
confined to that represented on the monumental effigies and 
to a few objects lost and discovered by chance. Further 
information may be gleaned from a study of the treasures of 
Norman France, from the few Norman inventories of jewels 
and gold-work, chiefly ecclesiastical, and from contemporary 
technological treatises, such as the Schedula diversarum artium 
of Theophilus. 1 

One of the few extant jewels of this early period of 
Norman supremacy is a gold ring (Plate X, 3) of the time 
of the Conquest or rather later, which has its massive hoops 
chased with an intricate design of interlaced animals. In this 
a strong Scandinavian influence is still apparent. The 
classical tradition is represented by such jewels as a XII 
century brooch found some fifty years ago near Canterbury. 2 

1 English translation by Hendrie. This, written just before noo, describes the tools 
and processes of the metal worker in modelling, enamelling, jewel setting and inlaying. 
Its descriptions suggest Byzantine influence, which was much stronger on the Continent 
than in England. 

* Proc. Soc. Ants. Lond,, VII, 1878, p. 368. In the possession of Mr. Smith of Elham. 


This is set with an antique gem engraved with a faun 
extracting a thorn from another faun's foot, within a border 
of gold inscribed Amor mncit fortitudinem. 

The Norman and Angevin kings of England were 
Frenchmen living in close touch with France, and foreign 
fashions and foreign jewels were gradually naturalized in this 
country. The effigy of Richard Cceur de Lion at Rouen, 
for instance, shews a large ring brooch and a belt, of which 
the leather band is " harnessed" throughout its length with 
alternate bars and quatrefoils of foliated jeweller's work, and 
the same richness appears on such female effigies as that of 
Berengaria at Le Mans. 

King John possessed personal jewellery of great mag- 
nificence, some of which may still lie beneath the sands of 
the Welland, where it was lost with all his baggage train. 
He seems to have been unlucky with his jewels ; there is a 
record extant 1 which mentions a reward twenty shillings of 
rent in the place of the finder's birth offered for the return 
of some gems " which we are wont to wear round our neck." 
His royal robe is described 2 in an inventory of 1205 as a 
mantle of Eastern silk, studded with sapphires, cameos and 
pearls, and fastened with a clasp set with four emeralds, 
sapphires and balas rubies, and a turquoise. The Guild 
of Goldsmiths was that most heavily amerced of all the 
"adulterine" companies of London in 1180, its shops being 
at that time concentrated in the ward of Aldersgate, in 
the parishes of St. John Zachary and St. Vedast, Foster 

1 M. Bateson, Mediceval England, p. 13. 

2 Hardy, Letters Patent Rolls in the Tomer of London, I, p. 54. 




Lane. 1 In 1327 the Guild was incorporated by Letters 
Patent of Edward III as "The Wardens and Commonalty 
of the Mystery of Goldsmiths of the City of London," and 
at the same time it was ruled that no gold work should be 
sold except at the King's Exchange or in the Chepe. 2 The 
hall-mark of the Company was recognized as the public 
standard of assay as early as the reign of Edward I ; from 
that time onward all gold and silver plate exposed for sale 
had to be "touched with the touche of the Libard." 3 

The perilous years of the early Middle Ages witnessed 
new spiritual growth. As men learnt to look beyond the 
troubles of the world to a heavenly reality, so the artist 
learned to transcend the satisfaction of the eye in symbolic 
beauty. The Church Invisible was mirrored in the material 
edifice, and its form and the details of its decoration thus 
became the canon of the minor arts. The XIII century 
is the age of scholastic philosophy and of Gothic architecture: 
the one dominates the intellectual, the other the artistic 
activities of the age. France was the focus of these activities 
and the spiritual mistress of Europe. 

The use in her cathedrals of shrines, chalices, and 
reliquaries of Gothic form made the relations between archi- 
tecture and gold-work peculiarly close. Architectural tracery 
in chased metal was used even on lesser ornaments to frame 
figures which fulfilled on the precious vessels of the cathedral 
the symbolic functions of the statues of the fa9ade. 

Thus nearly all the morses recorded in the inventory of 

1 Herbert, History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, p. 121. 

2 Ibid., p. 128. 8 Ibid., p. 172. 


St. Paul's Cathedral in I295 1 are "triforiati" and decorated 
with figure work. The figure of St. Paul appeared on the 
greater number of them, either alone or grouped with other 
saints, and sometimes with a representation of the donor 
of the morse. One of the most splendid was "the morse 
of William of Ely, of silver, with many small figures, 
representing the Annunciation, Nativity, the Magi worship- 
ping, the Presentation of Christ in the Temple, and other 
similar things, with many stones and pearls set in the arms 
of the morse and the corners of golden tracery." 

With the symbolic figures and architectural framework 
of Gothic architecture the XIII century jeweller accepted 
the conventional foliations of early Gothic detail. A beautiful 
example of this style of decoration is to be found on the back 
of the seal of the Cathedral Chapter of Brechin. (Plate X, 2.) 
Leaf decoration of another kind, for which an architectural 
parallel can also be found, is engraved on the rim of a XIII 
century ring brooch in the British Museum. (Plate X, 6.) 
Another XIII century ring brooch in the same collection 
(Plate X, 10) is set with rubies and sapphires alternately. 

Such ornaments are all that survive of the lay jewellery of 
the time ; the descriptions of jewels in contemporary inven- 
tories shew that brooches of this kind formed an important 
part of the royal treasure. Henry III, in 1272, deposited 
for safety with his sister in Paris a great number of rings, 
sixty-nine belts, and forty-five fermails or brooches set with 
precious stones. 2 One of these is described as being " Cum 

1 Dugdale, History of St. Paul's, 1818 edition, p. 310. 

2 Rymer Foedera, ist edition, I, p. 878. 


duobus amantibus" a type that may perhaps be recognized 
in a brooch of base metal from Barrington recently given 
to the Cambridge Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology. 
The whole treasure was valued at ^1051 145. 8d., an 
enormous sum at that time. 

This king a born spendthrift made such extravagant 
presents to his wife that he was obliged to pawn not only his 
regalia, but also part of the jewels of the shrine of Edward 
the Confessor in Westminster Abbey. A Patent Roll in 
the Tower of London gives a list of these : it records many 
brooches or fermails, loose stones, more than eighty cameos, 
and great golden images of Edward the Confessor, the 
Virgin and Child, and the Three Kings of Cologne, one 
holding in his right hand a flower, with a crown set with 
sapphires, a great garnet on his breast, "and otherwise set 
with pearls and small stones," and a figure of St. Peter, 
holding in one hand a church and in the other the keys, 
trampling on Nero, in whose breast was a great sapphire. 

The Liber Quotidianus of Edward I * records many 
brooches, among them a square one of gold with a sapphire 
in the middle surrounded by pearls and precious stones, and 
one in the form of an eagle of gold set with rubies and 
emeralds a type of which Rhenish examples are still in 
existence. It also enumerates several coronets and belts, 
both of gold -work and of stuff sewn with jewels, and pen- 
dants set with a large sapphire, a cameo and an amethyst. 

When in 1774, the body of Edward I was examined 
lying in its tomb, 2 a stole was discovered decorated with 

1 Liber Quotidianus Garderobce regis Edwardi primi, ed. J. Nichols. 

2 Gough, Sepulchral Monuments, I, pt. i, p. 4. 


quatrefoils of beautifully chased work in gilt metal, set in 
the centre and in each petal with a paste in a raised collet. 
The ground of the stole was closely sewn with pearls in 
an interlaced pattern. The mantle in which the body was 
wrapped was fastened with a ring brooch, also set with pastes 
or stones in raised collets, with the head of the pin terminat- 
ing in an acorn. A pair of gloves was found, with a 
jewelled quatrefoil sewn on the back of each. 

The XIV century witnessed a new richness of ornament 
in gold-work as in architecture and other decorative arts. 
Figure work became more important and more independent 
of any architectural frame, and in gold-work the development 
of a different style of jewellery, decorated with incrusted 
enamel in high relief "email en ronde bosse" enabled the 
goldsmith to attempt more ambitious schemes of decoration. 
This style was so successful when carried out in opaque 
white, relieved with translucent enamel, pearls, and coloured 
stones, that it survived until the end of the XVI century. 
These figure compositions were nowhere more elaborate 
than on the great morses and pectorals used to clasp the 
cope of the priest. The inventory of the morses belonging 
to Westminster Abbey in 1388,' describes many decorated 
with such subjects as the Assumption of the Virgin, with 
Peter and Paul on either side, and the Virgin and Child 
with accompanying figures. Such compositions were not 
confined to ecclesiastical jewels. Edward II, in 1324, owned 
a belt which had " sur le mordant le Verge de Jesse" 

Both Edward II and his favourite, Piers Gaveston, were 

1 Archteologia, LI I, 1890, p. 213. 


famed for the jewels with which their garments were 
"broidered." The lists of the jewels of Gaveston made 
on his attainder in I3I3, 1 and of the King's in 1324^ describe 
vast quantities of unset stones ; crowns, circles and chaplets 
of gold and silver ; golden brooches and rings, " Fleures de 
liz " probably used for " broidering" garments; and girdles 
and diadems or " tressouresT At this time vast quantities 
of precious stones were imported from the East :- 

" No sapphire Inde, no ruby rich of price 
There lacked then, no emerald so grene, 
Bales, 3 Turkes. 4 

After the Battle of Cre'cy in 1346, an enormous number 
of jewels and of Limoges and other enamels were imported, 
and consequent efforts to emulate the extravagance of the 
King and his favourites led to the institution of sumptuary 
laws, though these were never rigorously enforced. In 1363, 
it was enacted that no person under the rank of knight, or 
of less property than ^200 in lands or tenements, should 
wear rings, buckles, ouches, girdles, or any other part of 
their apparel decorated with gold, silver or gems. From 
this time the existing inventories grow in number and detail, 
and are a reliable and invaluable source of information with 
which to check and illustrate our knowledge of the jewellery 
shewn in the other sources for the period. 

The jewellery of the time falls, roughly speaking, into 

1 Rymer, Fcedera, ist edition, III, p. 388. 

2 Palgrave, A ntient Kalendars and Inventories of the Exchequer, Vol. Ill, p. 123. 

3 The balas ruby, of a cochineal red colour, is so called from Balakia or Balch, the 
capital of Badakan in the Upper Oxus Valley, whence it was exported to Europe. It is 
really the ruby spinel, and is softer and less dense than the true ruby, from which it 
differs in not being dichroic. 4 Chaucer, Court of Love, V, 80. 



two categories that of which enamel is the sole or principal 
decoration, and that in which it is used chiefly to enhance 
the beauty of precious stones. For the enamelled figure 
work characteristic of the period, several processes were 
employed- the dmail en ronde bosse described above, for 
figures in relief or in the round, and champleve" enamel and 
translucent enamel over silver embossed in low relief for 
designs in one plane. Champlevd enamel, in which the com- 
partment to be filled with each colour is chiselled out and 
removed from the metallic ground so as to leave a very 
narrow band of metal at the level of the original surface as 
the dividing line between the compartments, was produced 
in considerable quantities in France, principally at Limoges. 
There was undoubtedly an export trade from this centre to 
England, but some enamel of this type was probably made 
in England, perhaps by enamellers, who, like the Richardin 
mentioned in the Livre des Metiers of Etienne Boileau, 
had learnt their craft in Paris. 

Canon Rock owned a morse enamelled in this style that 
had once formed part of the furniture of a parish church in 
Buckinghamshire. It was of quatrefoil shape, with small 
semicircles in the four angles, enamelled with the heads of 
the four Evangelists. In a long narrow compartment from 
top to bottom of the morse was a Virgin and Child, with 
a bird filling the space above and below; in an arch on 
either side was an angel holding a candle, enamelled on a 
green ground powdered with daisies. 1 

1 Rock, Church of our Fathers, II, p. 34. It was probably of French workmanship. 
A similar morse of copper, decorated with champleve enamel, described as Limoges work 
of the XIV century, is illustrated in the Catalogue of the Spitzer Collection. (Vol. I, 
Plate VII, No. 4.) This also has the unoccupied parts of the field powdered with daisies, 
which are characteristic of French work. 


XIV century English figure work in translucent enamel 
is best exemplified on the larger works of the goldsmith, such 
as the crozier of William of Wykeham at New College; 1 
examples of personal ornaments so decorated are two pendants 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum. 2 One (Plate XI, 7) is 
formed of two plaques, representing a knight and a lady, and 
a combat, so set as to form a case for a relic; the other (Plate 
XI, 8) is in the form of a diptych, with the Nativity and the 
Resurrection on the inner side of the leaves, and St. Michael 
on the outer with St. John. 

The third type of figure work in enamel dmail en ronde 
bosse\s hardly represented among the extant examples of 
English mediaeval jewellery, though the example recorded in 
inventories and those surviving in the treasuries of the 
Continent help to make good the deficiency. 

Such enamel work, however, was far from ousting heavily 
jewelled ornaments from favour. Precious gems were used 
in great profusion for the decoration of ornamental coronets 
for the hair, to which there are many references in con- 
temporary literature. In the Lay of Sir La^mfal 

" Their heads were dight well withal 
Everych had on a jolyf coronal 
With sixty gemmes and mo' ' 

while Chaucer, in his Knight's Tale, writes 

" A wreath of gold arm gret, of huge weight, 
Upon his head he set, full of stones bright 
Of fine rubys and clere diamants." 

1 A fine example of this work is set in the binding of a Psalter in the Bodleian 
Library, Oxford, MS. Auct. D. IV, 2. It is enamelled with the Annunciation and 
Coronation of the Virgin within a chased gilt border. 

2 218, 1873, and 215, 1874. 


These coronets were not confined to the use of the 
nobility; a receipt 1 for the sale of jewels by Agnes Chalk, 
spicer, of London, to John of Cambridge, records the sale 
to him of "a coronal of gold, wrought with stones, that is 
to say rubyes, saphirs, emeralds, and pearls." 

From the time of Edward III women wore their hair 
twisted up beneath cauls or frets of gold, generally studded 
with pearls. Such a one is described in the royal inventory 2 
"Une tisseure de perles (Tor lent chescun copoun de iiij perles od 
p elites aymeraudes de clere colour yndes & vertes." Many 
such cauls are shewn on the female effigies of the period, for 
instance, on that of the wife of Sir Edmund de Thorpe 3 
in Ashwellthorpe Church, Norfolk. In this example it 
is surmounted by a rounded circlet, and no veil is worn. 
A charming description of one of these head tires has 
been left by Chaucer in his Legende of Good Women? 

. . . "She was clad in roiall habite grene ; 

A fret of golde she had next her here, 

With florouns small ; and, I shall not lie, 

For all the world, right as a daisie, 

Icrownid is with white levis lite, 

So were the flourounis of her crowne white, 

For of a perle fine orientall 

Her white coroune was imakid all. 

For which the white coroune above the grene 

Ymade her like a daisie for to sene, 

Considered eke her fret of golde above." 

Isabel, Duchess of York (d. I342), 6 left such a fret of pearls 
to her daughter, Constance le Despencer; while Richard, Earl 
of Arundel (d. 1397), bequeathed to his wife all the apparels 

1 Riley, Memorials of London, p. 313. 2 Archceologia, X, 1792, p. 241. 

8 Stothard, Monumental Effigies, p. 86. 4 I, 214. 

6 Testamenta Vetusta, I, p. 135. 6 Ibid., I, p. 131. 


for the head of pearls and other stones which he had given 
her in his lifetime. 

About this time men began to wear hoods and hats, 
which, like their other garments, were heavily jewelled. In 
1377 Richard II deposited with the Corporation of London, 
as security for a loan, 1 a hood of scarlet, embroidered with 
rubies, balasses, diamonds, sapphires and large pearls ; 
another of murrey colour, embroidered with pearls, a hat 
of blue satin, embroidered with gems, and two hats of 
beaver embroidered with pearls. Massive coronals are 
shewn worn round the helmet on several monuments of 
the XIV century; a crown of great artistic beauty is that 
carved on the effigy of Henry IV in Canterbury Cathe- 
dral. The rim that rests on the forehead is decorated with 
a flowing design of vine leaves broken by jewelled circles and 
lozenges, and above this is a rich waved border from which 
spring oak leaves and fleur-de-lys. 

After the XIII century it was customary to wear a 
brooch-like ornament, called an enseigne, in the hat. Pilgrims 
brought back shells from the Holy Land, and badges from 
the great pilgrimage churches ; retainers wore the badges of 
their lords, and later the rich translated these devices into 
beautiful ornaments of jewelled gold and silver. This fashion 
was not confined to the laity ; Langland in the Vision of 
Piers Plowman writes of a priest " eke with brooch or ouches 
on his hood." 

Many base metal ornaments exist with the devices of the 
patron saints of the great pilgrimage churches. These were 

1 Riley, Memorials of London, p. 44. 


probably thought to give the wearer some share in the pro- 
tective power of the saint as well as to mark the pilgrimage 
he had accomplished. 

Langland 1 describes a pilgrim with 

"An hundred of ampulles 2 
On his hat seten, 
Signes of Synay, 
And shelles of Galice, 
And many a crouche on his cloke, 
And keyes of Rome, 
And the vernicle 3 bi-fore, 
For men showlde knowe 
And se bi his signes 
Whom he sought hadde." 

These signs first came into general use in the XIII 
century ; the majority of existing examples are of the two 
succeeding centuries, but the practice continued at a later date. 4 

These pilgrim's signs, or signacula, were cast at the 
churches and monasteries ; moulds for casting them are now 
in the Guildhall Museum of the City of London and in the 
British Museum, and a forge for working the base metal of 
which they were usually made has been found at Walsingham 
Priory, one of the greatest pilgrimage churches of England. 
Numerous examples have been found in river beds and else- 
where. 6 Some have holes for sewing to the hat and a few 
a pin cast in one with the brooch. 

1 Vision of Piers Plowman, I, 3543. 

2 Ampullas, supposed to contain a small relic, often of the blood of St. Thomas 
a Becket. 3 Veronica. 

4 Erasmus, in his Colloquy of the Pilgrimage for Religion's Sake, makes Menedemus 
ask Ogygius: "But what kind of apparel is that which thou hasten? Thou art beset 
with semicircular shells, art full on every side with images of tin and lead, trimmed with 
straw chains, and thine arm hath a bracelet of beads." 

6 Many pilgrims' signs were shewn at the exhibition at the Ironmongers' Hall in 
1861. Catalogue, p. 312 seq. 


Among the pilgrims' signs in the British Museum 
(Plate XIII) are examples with the head of Christ, the 
shell of St. James (Plate XIII, 5), the head and ampulla of 
St. Thomas a Becket (Plate XIII, 3), the Canterbury bell, the 
Agnus Dei or lamb and flag, St. George (Plate XIII, i), 
Henry VI, 1 St. Leonard, St. Christopher, the horn of St. 
Hubert and the wheel of St. Catharine (Plate XIII, 4), 
while those at the Guildhall Museum include among others 
examples with the Virgin and Child, the Temptation of our 
Lord, St. Edmund, and the Crucifixion with the inscription 
" lesus and Maria." These signs are not only interesting in 
themselves, but also as the origin of the splendid enseignes of 
gold, often decorated with a Scriptural subject, which were 
worn in the hat after the middle of the XV century. 

Besides these pilgrims' signs many secular badges of a 
similar kind were worn by the retainers of the great lords and 
their masters. In the British Museum are leaden enseignes 
with the bear and ragged staff of Warwick (Plate XIII, 10), 
the rose and fetterlock (Plate XI 1 1, 9), a falcon (Plate XI 1 1, 6), 
a cock, with a scroll inscribed " Follow me Kocrel" ; a stag 
lodged within palings ; a talbot, a horse and fleur-de-lys ; 
a cat and mouse with the legend " Vi sis mus," a shield 
encircled by a collar of SS, and a crowned heart with the 
motto " Herte be treue." 

Such personal badges had a marked effect on the design 
of jewels in the latter years of the XIV century. They 
commonly formed the motive of the ouches, or large brooches, 

1 Considered as a saint. Cf. paintings of him as such on the screens of Barton 
Church and Binham Abbey, Norfolk. 


which began to supersede the older and smaller fermails. 1 
Edmund, Earl of March, for instance, on his death in 
1380 bequeathed to his son "a small ouche in the form of 
the body of a stag and the head of an eagle," 2 and 
Richard, Earl of Arundel (d. 1397), left to his daughter, 
Elizabeth, an ouche ornamented with lions and crowns. 3 
This type of jewel is well represented in the list of brooches 
pawned by Richard II in I379- 4 These include five 
wrought with his cognizance, the white hart (such as he 
and his attendant angels wear in the Wilton diptych) 
studded with rubies on the shoulders ; one great ouche and 
three smaller ones each with a griffin in the middle ; five 
ouches in the shape of white dogs studded with rubies on 
the shoulders, one great ouche with four wild boars azure, 
and four more shaped like eagles. 

The collar of livery is a further and even more important 
development of the heraldic badge. The most important 
of the English mediaeval collars is the collar of SS, of which 
the origin is obscure. 5 The earliest example of the collar 

1 Ring brooches continued in use among the lower classes in Gloucestershire and 
other rural parts of England as late as the XVIII century. 

2 Testamenta Vetusta. 

3 Ibid., I, 131. 

4 Riley, Memorials of London, p. 429. 

5 The traditional attribution of the origination of the collar to John of Gaunt is 
supported by a drawing (now in the British Museum) made by Nicholas Charles, Lancaster 
Herald, of his arms as represented on a window of Old St. Paul's, encircled by a collar 
studded with SS. (ArchcBological Journal, XXXIX, p. 376.) Many interpretations have 
been brought forward for the mysterious SS. (See Purey Cust, The Collar of SS, p. 30 
seq.) St. Simplicius (a Roman Martyr), the Countess of Salisbury, the Martyrs of 
Soissons, Societas and Silentium, may, I think, be dismissed. There remain Sanctus 
(often abbreviated to S), Seneschallus, Souverayne and Souvenez. Seneschallus is possible, 
since John of Gaunt was Seneschal or Lord High Steward of England. 


of SS is that carved on the effigy of Sir John Swinford 
(d. 1371) in Spratton Church, Northamptonshire. 1 

This is a band probably of leather or stuff with raised 
edges, between which the SS are strung upon two narrow 
flat laces. It has no pendant, and is fastened with a knotted 

The weight of evidence as to the origin of the SS seems 
in favour of Souuerayne or Souvenez. Henry V bought of 
Christopher Tyldesley 2 "A collar of gold made for the King 
with twenty-tour letters of S pounced with soverain" At the 
same time his seals as Earl of Derby were engraved with an 
ostrich plume entwined with a scroll inscribed Souverayne? 
a motto which again appears upon his tomb. 

Souvenez, or more fully, Souvenez voits de mot, on the 
other hand, was used by Richard II at the Smithfield joust, 
and is mentioned as decorating three hundred leaves of silver 
bought for a robe of Henry IV then Earl of Derby in 
I39I-2. 4 

In I407 5 was made "a collar of gold, worked with the 
motto Soveignez and SS." 

The form of the collar of SS has changed considerably 
in the course of its history. The earlier examples like that 
of Sir John Swinford were apparently made of metal letters 

1 Archceological Journal, XXV, 1878, p. 423. 

1 W. St. John Hope, Heraldry for Craftsmen and Designers, p. 306. 

3 Ibid, p. 298. 

4 Ibid. In the same year he bought " i coler auri . . . cum xvij literis de S ad 
modum plumarum cum rotulis et scripturis in eisdem cum signo (?cygno) in torrecto 
ejusdem" (Planche Cyclopcedia of Costume, p. 127), and in 1296, "a collar made, together 
with SS, of flowers of soveigne vous de may, hanging and enamelled." 

5 Devon, Issues of the Exchequer, Pell Records, p. 305. 



fixed to a ground of leather ; l later examples shew the letters 
linked together, or joined by knots, as in the example carved 
on the effigy of Sir Richard Redmayne (d. 1441) in Hare- 
wood Church. 2 

Many other livery collars were made introducing the 
badges of the wearer or his lord. Perhaps the best-known 
example is the collar of Plantagenet broom pods worn by 
Richard 1 1 and his attendant angels in the Wilton diptych. 
Such collars were sent by Charles VI of France to this King 
and to the Dukes of Lancaster, Gloucester and York in 
I 393- 3 The King's, however, was of more elaborate design 
than that shewn in the picture. Henry IV became possessed 
of this collar, described as being " of the livery of the King 
of France," 4 and of another ''of the livery of Queen Anne" 
made of branches of rosemary. The great inventory of the 
jewels left by Henry V 6 mentions two collars of ' Bromes- 
coddes," one " Coler de tissu vert garniz d'or, 1'escription 
Sauns departier" and a third " fait d'un wrethe esmaille de 
vert et blanc." Henry VI combined the broomcods with his 
father's SS, 6 and Edward IV wore a collar composed of two 
of his badges, a sun in glory and a white rose. From this 
hung the lion of March, changed by Richard III for the 
boar of his cognizance. 

Another element in English jewel design at the end of the 

1 SS of Latten, apparently used for this purpose, have been found in the Thames and 
are now in the Guildhall Museum. 

- For this and other examples see Purey Cust. , op. cit., p. 24. 

3 John Anstis, Register of the most noble Order of the Garter, II, p. 1 15. 

4 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, III, p. 357. 

5 Rot. Parl., 2 Hen. VI, No. 80; Vol. IV, pp. 214-241 ; B. M. Harleian MS. 7026. 
Quoted with most of the other examples, St. John Hope, op cit., p. 304 seq. 

6 Antis, Register of the Order of the Garter, II, p. 115. No. M. 


XIV century can be traced to Burgundian influence. The 
devastations ot the Hundred Years' War had transferred the 
centre of artistic prosperity from France to Burgundy. Here 
the first stirrings of the Renaissance were felt in a new 
appreciation of the beauty of things as they are. Gothic 
symbolism had attained the point of development that Gothic 
architecture reached at Beauvais : its aim was too high and 
its span too great for its structure to bear the strain. The 
scheme of the whole had passed beyond comprehension, and 
as philosophers turned from speculative synthesis to experi- 
mental analysis, so artists renounced imaginative symbolism 
for the minute representation of natural beauty. The Flemish 
school of painters, whatever their subject, painted living men 
and women in surroundings they knew. Their Naturalism 
and the brilliance of their colour find a parallel in gold-work 
in jewels decorated with figure work, secular in its subject, 
enriched with precious stones. 

The political and commercial connections between 
England and the Burgundy brought jewels of this kind to 
England; the inventory of Edward Ill's jewels in the 
thirtieth year of his reign 1 records "Un nouche d' or gamy de 
precious pieres ove deux ymages a lafaceon du Roi and Roigne" 
and Henry IV 2 owned "ouches" decorated with a white angel 
holding a sapphire, 3 a child seated on a leopard, a lady and a 
unicorn, 4 ' un faucon blanc steant sr un perch," " un griffon 
seisant un deyme," an " olifaunt," a lady seated on a sun, 5 and 

1 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, III, p. 223. 2 Ibid., p. 340 seq. 

8 Collectanea Antiqua, IV, p. 108 ; Cf. brooch from River Meuse, Franks Bequest, 
British Museum. 

4 Cf. brooch of the Virgin in Lochner's Dombild (Cologne Cathedral), Clifford Smith, 
Jewellery, p. 145. 

6 Cf. brooch in Treasury of Collegiate Church of Essen, ibid., p. 144. 


" une damoysell es blancs flours portant un papingey en la 
mayn ", all richly set with diamonds, rubies, sapphires and 
pearls. At the same time simpler figure work in plain gold 
and silver-gilt continued to be used for less splendid jewels, in 
the religious designs of the preceding generation. Among 
the surviving examples of this type are the brooch from 
Kingston-on-Thames, in the British Museum, a " crystofre," 
like Chaucer's Yeoman's, and a triptych of silver, engraved 
and parcel gilt, with a figure of St. George and the Dragon 
in relief. (Plate XI, 6.) 

Most of the existing lay jewels of the period, however, 
are fermails of relatively simple type. A fine XIV century 
example in the British Museum from the Londesborough 
Collection (Plate XI, 7) has the ring ornamented with four 
hollow bosses pierced with dragons and cockatrices alternating 
with cabochon emeralds and sapphires, and pearls in raised 

The ring brooch continued in use longer in Scotland 
than in England. One of the best Scottish examples is the 
Glenlyon brooch (Plate XV, i), once in the possession of 
the Campbells of Glenlyon, and now in the British Museum. 
The ring of the brooch is some three inches in diameter, and 
is set with six pearls in tall gold turrets, alternating with 
amethysts plainly set within a beaded edge, and crystals set 
in turrets encircled by wires crossing depressions in the 
metallic ring. Across the diameter is a bar of the same width 
as the ring, ornamented with two geometric cloisonnd panels 
of which the settings are lost, with a quatrefoil motive in the 
middle. Two pins are attached to the ring, and rest on the 


edge of the central boss of the bar. On the back of the 
brooch is the talismanic inscription in black letters of the names 
of the Three Kings and the word Consumatun the last 
saying of Our Lord, "It is finished" -which was considered 
a powerful talisman. 

A development of the ring brooch that arose in the later 
years of the XIV century, probably used as a love-token, has 
two tiny clasped hands, sometimes holding a stone, projecting 
from the ring. (Plate X, 12.) A brooch of this type is 
mentioned in the will of Philippa, Countess of March 1 
(d. 1378), who left to her son "un fermayl bleu avec deux 
mangs tenang un diamant." Such a brooch found at 
Ixworth, Suffolk, 2 is remarkable as having a small human 
head projecting from the ring opposite the hands. Other 
brooches of the same date are of similar construction to the 
ring-shaped fermail, but are of heart, lozenge, trefoil, or some 
other more elaborate design. These often bear amatory 
mottoes; a brooch formed of three scrolls placed trefoil-wise 
found at Brighton is inscribed "en espoier ma vye endure," 
while a heart-shaped brooch found at Newtimber, Sussex, 
has the posy, "Is thy heart as my heart?" 3 There are 
several references to these heart-shaped fermails in wills ; 
Hugh, Earl of Stafford, in a codicil dated 1383, left to his 
daughter Joan "a golden fermail of a heart," 1 and John, 
Lord Scrope of Upsal (d. 1451), bequeathed "one great 
brooch of gold, of two angels, fashioned like a man's heart." 

1 Planche, Encydop&dia of Costume, Vol. II, p. 97. 

2 C. Roach Smith, Collectanea Antigua, III, p. 253. 
8 Arcfueological Journal, X, 1854, P 7 ! 

* Testamenta Fetus ta, I, p. no. 6 Ibid., I, p. 271. 


A beautiful example of this type in the British Museum 
(Plate XIII, 10) has the heart-shaped ring studded with 
projecting golden flowers. A brooch found at Ixworth, 
Suffolk, 1 has the rim shaped like a bird. 

Although few lay jewels of this transition period between 
the XIV and XV centuries survive, it is one of the few 
periods well represented among the remaining English 
ecclesiastical jewels, since three more or less perfect mitres 
of this date are in existence. 

The mitre and crozier of William of Wykeham are pre- 
served in New College, Oxford, which he founded in 1404. 
The remaining portions of the ground of the mitre are sewn 
with seed pearls in a conventional pattern ; it is doubtful how 
the other fragments were arranged upon it. Parts of the 
delicate Gothic crocketing of gold which adorned the edge 
remain and two bands, formed of a series of square-hinged 
plaques of champlevd enamel in grotesque designs, plaques 
formed of a square-cut dark blue paste and a white crystal set 
side by side, and metal medallions with a square-cut crystal 
in the centre surrounded by eight radiating pearls. There are 
also two square metal affixes, with slightly incurved sides, with 
a white crystal in the centre bordered with beautiful Gothic 
foliation in high relief, two chased silver-gilt quatrefoils, each 
set with a cabochon gem, and a cruciform gold ornament set 
with turquoises ; all of these are pierced for sewing to the 
groundwork. What may have formed the central ornament 
of the front of the mitre is probably the most beautiful sur- 
viving example of early English jewellery. (Plate XI, i.) 

1 Archceological Journal, X, 1854, P- 81. 



In form a crowned Lombardic M of gold symbol of the 
Virgin, patron of the diocese it is set with eleven cabochon 
rubies and emeralds in compartments divided by straight lines 
of the minute granular work also employed to outline the 
letter, which is ornamented beneath the crown and at the 
lower corners with clusters of round Oriental pearls. 1 On 
the main stem of the letter is a ruby cut in the shape of a vase, 
from which spring three lilies, their petals of white enamel, and 
their leaves of small cabochon gems. Standing in the two 
open arches of the letter beneath minute Gothic cuspings are 
the figures of the Virgin and the Angel of the Annunciation 
made of gold in full relief, the Angel's wings being of trans- 
lucent green enamel. Thus the New College jewels ex- 
emplify all the technical processes of the goldsmith in common 
use at the beginning of the XV century. 

A mitre which must have been very similar in type is 
described in an inventory of the possessions of Louis 
d'Harcourt, Patriarch Bishop of Bayeux, who died in 1479 : 2 
" Une mitre dont Ic champ est de perles menues, semd 
d'autres perles plus grosses, ensemble trois et trois, ayant 
audevant xvj affiches d argent dore", et derribre autant ; les 
uns emailles, les autres enrichis de pierreries et petits perles, 
ayant audevant la representation de FA nnonciation et derribre 
le wironnement de la Ste. Vierge en images, les pendants 
garnis de mj affiches toiit le long, au bout de chacun iij 
(affiches) qui font les bords, d argent dord enrichis cFdmaux 
et de pierres, au bout de chaque pendant, vj chaincttes ou sont 

j Two stones and two pearls lost. 

2 Archceological Journal, II, 1846, p. 206. 


attaches vj ferets d* argent dore" et au dessus ij saphirs tallies 
en forme de cceur? 

The side of a mitre in the possession of the Duchess of 
Norfolk 1 is probably of late XIV century date. The ground 
is of couched gold thread, on which are sewn fifteen small 
ornaments, each composed of a square stone in the centre 
of a cross of four pearls, and three pairs of star-shaped 
ornaments of different patterns, set with stones and pearls. 
The central panel of the mitre is of gilt metal, with eleven 
oblong silver-gilt settings with beaded edges, enclosing silver 
plates enamelled with flying and walking birds for the most 
part doves and swans on a ground of translucent blue 
enamel. Two sides of the lockets are now each set with 
three projecting pearls, but the existing traces of broken 
hinges on these edges make it probable that the plaques were 
once hinged together, as are those ornamenting the mitre of 
William of Wykeham. On either side of the vertical band 
are sewn the principal ornaments : two wheel-shaped jewels, 
each with four spokes, with a jewel in the centre and eight 
on the rim. The nearly circular central bosses are bordered 
with rudely chased fleur-de-lys, and are respectively set with a 
pale green stone and an engraved onyx. The jewels of the 
rim are of various sorts, set in sockets rising from square or 
oblong bases. One sexfoil socket is filled with translucent 
green enamel with a ring of yellow spots, several are set with 
red and yellow stones, and others enclose heart-shaped pastes 
divided into red and white halves by a zigzag line of gold. 
These heart-shaped stones recall the vase on the M of the 

1 Proc. Soc. of Ants., Lon., XXIV, 1912, p. 128. 


Oxford Mitre, and the " sapkirs tallies en forme de cceur" of 
the Bayeux inventory. 

The mitre made for Cornelius O'Deagh, Bishop of 
Limerick in 1418,* is now in the possession of his successor. 
(Plate XII.) The two sides are formed of thin plates of 
silver-gilt, with a border and central panel outlined with 
moulded ornament and set with crystals, pearls, garnets, 
emeralds, and other stones, the large gems being in claw 
settings, and the smaller in collets. Near the apex is a cross 
of crystal, beneath which is the inscription, Hoc sigmim crucis 
erit in ccelo, which is continued beneath the corresponding 
cross on the other side, " Cum Domimis ad judicandum 
venerit" The outer edge of the mitre is enriched with a fine 
cresting of vine leaves, and the spaces on either side of the 
central panel are filled with foliated ornament executed in 
pearls over foil. Round the base of the mitre is a band 
enamelled in purple, green, and blue translucent enamel, 
with the inscription Cornelius O Deaygh, episcopus Limervi- 
censis Anno Domini Mille CCCCXVIII me fieri fecit ', and 
above is the smaller inscription Thomas O Carry d artifex 
faciens. On either side of the base of the central panel 
is a small niche, one with the figures of the Virgin and Child, 
and the other with that of a kneeling Bishop, perhaps 
Cornelius O'Deagh himself. The lowest band round the 
mitre is ornamented with chased roses and set with jewels in 
angular compartments of engraved Gothic foliation. The 
original pendants or infulce are now unfortunately lost, but are 
described in the original communication to the Archczologia 

1 Archeeologia, LI I, 1880, p. 220. 


as being twenty-one inches long, and made of hinged silver 
plates. They ended in little figures of the Angel Gabriel 
and the Virgin below canopies, affixed above a rich gold 

Episcopal wills and the ecclesiastical inventories of the 
period shew how rich the jewelled decoration of the priests' 
liturgical ornaments had become ; mitres with splendid 
decoration like that recorded in the Westminster inventory of 
I388, 1 sewn with seven brooch-like medallions of jewelled 
work, bordered with jewelled metal, and hung with eight 
silver-gilt bells ; pins to fasten the pallium to the chasuble, 
like those recorded in the Canterbury inventory for I328, 2 
each set with a balas ruby, two emeralds and two sapphires ; 
gloves sewn, like those of kings, with jewels the last quoted 
inventory describes the gloves of Archbishop de Wynchelese 
as ornamented with pearls and gems in square medallions- 
jewelled ponsers like those recorded in the will of William of 
Wykeham, all served to enhance the splendour of the 
embroidered vestments of the priest. 

^^pontificalia of the bishop included also his episcopal 
ring, worn on the annular finger of the right hand. 3 

Pope Innocent III decreed in 1194 that episcopal rings 
should be of gold, and that the gems with which they were set 

1 See Archceologia, XVII, 1814, p. 30. 

2 Hope and Legge, Inventories of Christ Church, Canterbury, p. 7. 

:i Bishops also wore personal rings above the second joint of the finger or on the 
thumb. (Dalton, Guide to the Medieval Department of the British Museum, p. 175.) The 
effigy of Archbishop Chichele in Canterbury Cathedral wears a thumb ring and an 
episcopal ring, but neither is upon the second joint, while the effigy of Bishop Oldham, 
(d. 1519), in Exeter Cathedral, wears three rings on the right hand, four on the left, and a 
signet ring of great size over both thumbs. The rings bequeathed to the King in many 
early episcopal wills were not pontifical but personal rings. 





should not be engraved, as had often been the practice 
earlier. 1 Episcopal rings were often buried with their owners, 
and in consequence of this and of their comparatively small 
intrinsic value they are now the best represented type of 
ecclesiastical jewellery in England. After the Pope's edict 
the usual stone for these rings was the sapphire, on account 
of its supposed magical properties, but other gems were 
also used. The ring of Archbishop Greenfield (d. 1315) 
is set with a ruby, supported by the foliated ends of the 

The troubled state of France in the XV century did not 
preclude the French nobles from an extravagant use of jewels. 
A chronicler describes the lords and men-at-arms who took 
part in the entry of Charles VII into Paris as " pare"s comme 
des chasses." Similarly the Wars of the Roses did little to 
diminish the use of jewelled ornaments in England, since 
such easily portable treasure is the most secure form of riches 
in troubled times. The Goldsmiths' Company rose to 
eminence among the guilds of London, and in 1462 was 
granted a Common Seal by Edward IV. 2 The numbers of 
its native masters were increased by its recognition of foreign 
denizens working in the city. In 1469 there were as many 
as a hundred and twelve foreign master-goldsmiths so recog- 
nized. 3 The use of jewels as a form of currency is shewn in 
many lists of royal jewels pawned at this date, which also give 
a very interesting record of the various types of decoration 
used for the richer kind of ornament. 

1 Cf. that of Sefford, Bishop of Winchester (d. 1151). 

8 Herbert, History of the Twelve Great Livery Companies of London, p. 121. 

8 Ibid., p. 192. 


Burgundian influence is apparent in a jewel pledged by 
Henry VI to Cardinal Beaufort 1 "a tablet of Seynt George, 
of gold, garnysshed wt a rubee, viij dyamandes, and in yt oon 
pertee ys an aungel holdyng an helme garnysshed wt a rubee 
and litil perles, and in that other pertie ys a pusell knelyng 
wt a lambe, garnysshed wt a rubee, and ye tablet al about is 
garnysshed wt xxv baleys, xxv saphire, iij emeraudes, and a 
great company of perles." Probably the decoration which 
ran "al about ye tablet" was that wreath of jewelled Gothic 
foliation which characterizes the Burgundian pendants of this 
time. Heraldic badges formed the motive of many jewels of 
this date; Henry V, for instance, in 1415 pawned for the 
expenses of the French campaign " a great collar of gold, 
wrought with crowns and beasts called antelopes," enamelled 
with white SS, each beast set with two pearls and green 
garnets, and having one pearl about its neck, and each crown 
set with one large balas ruby and nine large pearls, while the 
large crown in the front had in addition two large diamonds 
on its summit. Collars of suns and roses with a white lion 
pendant are worn by Sir John Dunne and his wife, in the 
triptych by Hans Memlinc in the collection of the Duke of 
Devonshire, 2 by a knight whose effigy is in Ryther Church, 
Yorkshire, 3 and by Sir Robert Harcourt (d. 1471) in his 
effigy in Stanton Harcourt Church, Oxon. An interesting 
linked example is shewn on the monument of one of the 
Erdington family in Aston Church, Warwickshire, and one 
combined with the Fitzalan oak-leaves on the effigy of Joan, 

1 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, II, p. 184. 

2 Burlington Fine Arts Club. Exhibition of Early English Portraits, 1909, No. 22. 

3 Archceological Journal, II, 1846, p. 92. 


Countess of Arundel at Arundel (c. 1487). The inventory 
of the jewels of Sir Henry Howard made in 1466* records 
:< a collar of gold with 34 roses and suns set on a corse of 
black silk with a hanger of gold garnished with a sapphire." 
A short necklace of roses alone is worn by Dame Agnes 
Crosby in her effigy of about 1475 in Great St. Helen's. 
Several examples of collars of family badges are known : the 
effigy of Thomas Lord Berkeley 2 wears a collar of mermaids, 
and that of Sir Thomas Markenfield 3 a collar of park palings 
with a central ornament of a hart lodged. 

Margaret, Duchess of Norfolk (d. 1490) left to her 
daughter "a chain of water flowers." A collar of badges 
was given to his son by Henry VII in 1504*: "a collar of 

golde wt rede roses and white enameld wt pauncies wt wyres 
of pynnes" ; while in 15 28 s Henry VIII owned "a carkeyn 
of gold with all the king's devices." 

The collar of SS was in the XV century usually made in 
a banded or linked form, often with the ends joined to a 
trefoil-shaped ring. From this were hung family, political 
and personal badges, such as the white lion of March, the 
black bull of Clare, the swan of de Bohun, or, in the XVI 
century, the Tudor Rose. An eagle pendant is worn by 
Oliver Groos (d. 1439) on his effigy in Sloley Church, 
Norfolk. A representation of the arms of Holland, made 
about the same date, gives a fetterlock pendant of red and 

1 Royal Commission of Historical MS S., yth Report, p. 577. 

2 Brass at Wotton-under-Edge, Gloucestershire. 
8 Stone effigy in Ripon Cathedral. 

4 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, III, p. 393. 
6 Brewer, Letters and Papers, IV, pt. 2, No. 5114. 


black. The Beaufort portcullis is shewn on a brass of about 
1475 in Migginton Church, Derbyshire, and occurs, charged 
with the Tudor rose, hanging from the collar of Sir John 
Cheyney (d. 1489), at Salisbury. A few examples, such as 
the portrait of Henry VI in the National Portrait Gallery, 
display a hanging cross. 1 

Sometimes the coat-of-arms was employed as a decoration, 
as on the fourteen enamelled shields that harness the belt of 
the Horn of Savernake. More rarely personal mottoes were 
so employed; John Baret of Bury (d. 1463) bequeathed to 
John Hert 2 a " Girdyll with a bokyll and pendaunth of silver, 
Grace me governe (his * reson ' or device) wretyn ther in." 

If such personal mottoes are comparatively rare, amatory 
inscriptions are common in the XV century. The inventory 
of goods stolen from the Queen about 1420 by Brother John 
Randolf 3 records a ring inscribed " a ma vie" a cross-shaped 
pendant with "Amer and servier" and two heart-shaped 
brooches inscribed "A voiis me lie" and "a ma vie de coer 
entier" The three daughters of Richard Beauchamp, Earl 
of Warwick, who died in I439 4 were each left an inscribed 
ring. Margaret, Countess of Shrewsbury, had one with 
" Till deithe depart" ; Alianour, Duchess of Somerset, one 
with ''Never newe" '; and Elizabeth, Lady Latimer, one 
inscribed " Til my lives end" 

1 Examples later than the XV century, such as that shewn in the portrait of Sir 
Thomas More in the Bodleian Library, the fine XVI century example presented by 
Sir John Alleyn in 1546 and still worn by the Lord Mayor of London, and the later 
collars of the Chief Heralds and the Lord Chief Justice display knots between the SS, and 
have each end finished with an ornament in the shape of a portcullis. 

1 Tymms, Bury Wills and Inventories, p. 15. 

3 Archceologia, LXI, 1909, p. 170. 4 Testamenta Vetusta, I, p. 76. 


A ring found near Hornsey 1 shaped like a torse of two 
branches, from which the twigs have been lopped, is inscribed 
within : " Whan you loke in this, thynk in them yt gave you 
thys." Common inscriptions are " Je suis id en lieu d? ami" 
and " Man cocur avez sans departir" Sometimes the posy 
was a moral one, like that of a ring 2 found in the Queen's 
Head Tavern at Hornsey, with a conical bezel set with an 
emerald supported by two openwork enamelled scrolls, which 
is inscribed in old French with the great truth that he who 
spends more than belongs to him kills himself without striking 
a blow. 

The marriage ring was in the Middle Ages often differ- 
entiated from ornamental rings only by its posy. Gimmel, or 
double rin^s were, however, sometimes used for betrothal or 


marriage rings. These are formed of two and later and 
more rarely three interlocking rings, either hinged together 
or completely divisible. 3 Their use as love-tokens is illus- 
trated by the will of John Baret of Bury (1463), 4 which directs 
that Margaret Spurdaunce be given "a doubyl ring departyd 
of gold, with a ruby and a turkeys, with a scripture wretyn 
with yne, for a rememberaunce of old love vertuously set at 
alle tymes to the pleseer of God." Clasped hands are often 
found on betrothal rings, both gimmel and of the ordinary 
shape ; one in the British Museum 6 is inscribed on the 
shoulders with the posy " God help" and is chased at the back 
with a heart with two quatrefoil flowers rising from it. 

1 British Museum, No. 876. 

2 British Museum, No. 929. 

3 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, III, p. 137. 

4 Tymms, Bury Witts and Inventories, p. 36. 5 No. 1008. 


An inventory of jewels of Edward II records : " un anel 
gimmel des rubies and ameraldz," and one taken after the 
accession of Henry IV, "i anel de deux verges Tun d'or et 
1'autre d'argent 1'un close en 1'autre." 

Precious stones in the Middle Ages had a triple import- 
ance ; they were valued for their beauty, their intrinsic worth, 
and their traditional magical virtues. Langland, in the Vision 
of Piers Plowman, describes a lady whose fingers were laden 
with golden rings set with diamonds, rubies, sapphires, 
"orientals and ewages, 1 venems to destroye." It was one 
of the articles of impeachment against Hubert de Burgh that 
he had furtively removed a gem from the King's treasury 
which would make the wearer invincible in battle, and had 
bestowed it on Llewellyn of Wales. 3 Among the spoils of 
Jack Cade was " a beryll for the eye," and in old St. Paul's 
was a famous sapphire, given by Richard de Preston, grocer, 
for the cure of diseases of the eyes. There are still in Scot- 
land various medicinal stones of this time, such as the 
Glenorchy stone of Breadalbane, 4 a crystal in a rim of silver 
set with pearls, and the Ardvorlich Clack Dearg? a crystal 
globe caged in silver, the belief in which has only recently, if 
yet, died out. 

The need for magical protection was also expressed in 
other prophylactic jewels. The fossilized teeth of sharks, 
" serpents' tongues," were used as early as the time of 

1 Pearls and crystals. 

2 Cf. Holinshed, writing of the death of King John: "When the King suspected 
(the pears) to be poisoned indeed, by reason that such precious stones as he had about him 
cast forth a certain sweat, as it were bewraying the poison." 

3 W. Jones, Precious Stones, p. 25. 

4 Paton, Scottish National Memorials, p. 330. 5 Ibid., p. 338. 


Edward I 1 against poison, while among the jewels of 
Edward IIP "cynk langes de serpents garniz d'argent 
dorrez od un collier d'argent od perle " are recorded. An 
inventory of jewels made for Henry VI 3 includes a chain of 
gold supporting pieces of unicorn's horn and of serpentine 
"pour mettre en nostre bouire," and among Henry VI Fs 
property in i5c>4 4 there is "a unicornes bone and a serpent's 
tongue hang be a cheyne." 

These and many other substances were used as touching 
pieces, " towches " or proofs for the detection of poison in 
food. The horn of the unicorn really that of the narwhal- 
was particularly valued ; such a horn is still preserved at New 
College, Oxford. Toaclstones were also commonly used in 
the XV and XVI centuries. 5 

The growth of the belief in the magical virtues of such 
jewels in the XIV and XV centuries was chiefly due to the 
growth of half-magical science in Europe. A great part of 
its lore was derived from Eastern sources, and Eastern 
merchants did much to foster the demand for magical jewels. 
At the same time the pressure of material prosperity, often 
menaced by material danger, had weakened the unselfish 
devotion of men's Christianity. They no longer sought the 
glory of God and His Saints without thought of themselves, 
but endeavoured to ensure divine protection from calamity. 
For this reason the cult of patron saints by individuals or 
confraternities came to be of great importance, their protection 

1 Liber Quotidianus, ed. Nichols, p. 352. 

2 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, III, p. 175. 

8 Anstis, Register of the most noble Order of the Garter, Vol. I, p. 115, Note M. 
4 Palgrave, Kalendars and Inventories, III, p. 295. 
6 See Magical Jewels, Chapter VI. 


being further ensured by the wearing of their image. The 
custom may have arisen from the wearing of pilgrims' signs, 
but it was natural enough in an age when every city, house, or 
door was defended by the image of its tutelary saint. St. 
Christopher was thought to protect the wearer from sickness, 
tempest, flood, and earthquakes ; and St. Barbara from 
sudden death. Their figures are often to be found engraved 
on rings of the XV century (e.g. Fortnum Collection, 
Ashmolean Museum, 584 and 586). Representations of the 
Trinity, the Virgin and Child, St. George, and St. Thomas 
a Becket are also common. Another expression of the same 
tendency of thought is seen in such inscriptions as the names 
of the three Magi, Jesus Nazarenus Rex JudcBorum, Aye 
Maria and Mater Dei memento mei. The essentially magical 
character of these religious phrases is betrayed by their 
association with cabalistic formulae, such as AGLA and ANANI- 
ZAPTA, which were thought to preserve the wearer from death 
and disease. 1 Even jewels of a more definitely devotional 
kind were not free from the taint of magic. The Five 
Wounds or "Wells" of Christ were generally reverenced in 
the XIV and XV centuries, their cult being particularly con- 
nected with Requiem Masses. Sir Edward Shaw, goldsmith 
and alderman of London, in ^S; 2 left directions that 
sixteen rings should be made and given to his friends on his 
death, " of fyne gold, to be graven with the well of pitie, the 
well of mercie, and the well of everlasting life." Such a ring 
was found in Coventry Park in 1802, and is now in the 
British Museum. 3 It is a broad, flat band of gold, engraved 

1 See Magical Jewels, Chapter VI. 2 Archceologia, XVIII, 1817, p. 307. 3 Plate XV, 6. 



with the figure of Christ rising from the Sepulchre, with the 
hammer, sponge, and other instruments of the Passion 
behind ; the wound in the side, with the inscription ' :< the well 
of everlasting lyffe" two smaller wounds, inscribed ' the well 
of comfort" and "the well of gracy" and two more, with the 
inscriptions "the well of pitty" and "the well of merd" 
Within the shank is the legend li Vwlnera quinque del sunt 
medicina met, pia crux et passio Chris ti sunt medicina michi" 
followed by the names of the three kings and the magical 
formula Ananyzapta tctragrammaton. 

The same desire for protection was expressed in the 
wearing of reliquaries. The men of the XV century were 
less anxious to venerate the relics of a saint in his shrine than 
to bear with them some object which should confirm the bond 
between themselves and their celestial protectors. Nearly all 
the existing pendants of the XV century are made hollow to 
contain a relic. They are sometimes formed of two engraved 
plates set with a cavity between, as is a circular pendant of 
about 1470, from Reculver Beach (Plate XV, 8), engraved 
with figures of St. John the Baptist and St. Catherine, and 
another (Plate XII, i and 3) with St. John and a bishop. 
A third 1 is ornamented with the image of St. Catherine and 
the inscription In God is al mi tmst. 

The fashion for thus wearing relics is further exemplified in 
the brooch of Lorn, 2 in the possession of the Macdougals of 
Lorn, and the Loch Buy brooch, long in the possession of the 
Macleans of Loch Buy in the Isle of Mull. (Plate XV, 7.) 

1 Shewn by A. E. Hudd, Esq., F.S.A., at the Society of Antiquaries, London, in 1894. 
Proceedings^ XV, p. 224. 2 Paton, Historical Scottish Relics, p. 34. 


This has as its central ornament a large crystal raised on a 
disc, the outer edges of which are scalloped and decorated 
with a geometrical pattern of small bosses and twisted wire 
filigree. The crystal lifts up to shew a cavity for a relic 
concealed in the tall setting. The outer rim of the brooch is 
similarly ornamented with filigree, decorated with ten tall 
" ckdtons" each about an inch long, set with a river pearl. 
The Ugadale brooch, belonging to the Macneals of Firfergus, 
is similar in type, having its outer ring of turret settings 
arranged close round the central boss. These characteristic 
turret settings also decorate a XV century silver reliquary 
once in the collection of Lord Londesborough. 1 

A form of reliquary was used to contain the small discs 
impressed with the Agnus Dei made in Rome from the wax 
of the Paschal candles. Such a case, found at Upchurch, of 
XV century date, is of silver embossed with a representation 
of the Lamb and Flag within a rim of twisted wire. 2 

Many crucifixes were worn, also usually made with a 
cavity for a relic. A good example of the second half of the 
XV century was found at Clare Castle, Suffolk, and is now in 
the Royal Collection. 3 Sir Thomas Brooke, Lord Cobham, 
on his brass in Cobham Church, 4 wears a cross and chain 
over his armour, and brasses of 1460-1527 for example, 
that of Agnes Staunton at Castle Donnington, Leicestershire 
shew women wearing similar crosses. They are also men- 
tioned in many wills of the period. Eleanor, Duchess of 

1 Fairholt, Miscellanea Graphica, Plate XXXIV. 

2 Journal of the Archceo logical Association, III, 1862, p. 39. 

3 Archceological Journal, XXV, 1866, p. 60. 

4 Druitt, Costume in Brasses, p. 191. 


Gloucester, for instance, left to her son Humphrey a pendant 
crucifix set with four pearls " come chose d^L my en qe jay mieux 
amee" More than one crucifix was sometimes hung on the 
same rosary: "a peyer of beads with 14 crucifixes" is recorded. 1 

The XV century was the time at which the rosary was 
most commonly worn and most richly decorated. Formed of 
a string of beads of various sizes and materials, representing 
Aves, Paternosters and Glorias, strung in decades of Aves, 
each preceded by a Paternoster and followed by a Gloria, it 
was sometimes attached to a ring or bracelet, but more often 
hung from the girdle. Sometimes the rosary consisted of one 
decade; these are often alluded to in XVI century inventories 
as "tenners." 

Brooches and pendants were sometimes hung on it, as the 
crucifix is generally hung now. Chaucer in his Prologue says 
that the Nun 

"Of smale corall aboute hire arme she bare 
A pair of bedes, gauded all with grene, 
And thereon heng a broche of gold ful shene." 

These brooches are often mentioned in wills, 2 and it might 
have been thought that the word was here used as a general 
term for jewel, but for the mutilated effigy of a lady found in 
Bangor Cathedral, 3 who holds a rosary down one side of 
which are five brooches of irregular size and distribution. An 
inventory made in 1381 of the stock of Adam Ledyard, 
' paternosterer," mentions four sets of white amber,, sixteen 

1 ArcJusologia, X, p. 469. 

2 e.g. Will of Sir Thomas Ughtred (d. 1398). " j par de paters nosters de auro, cum 
uno annulo et uno ouche de auro." 

Archceologkal Journal, XXXVI, 1879, p. 388, and XXXVII, 1880, p. 206. 
* Riley, Memorials of London, -p. 455. 


sets of ordinary amber, five of coral and jet, six sets of aves of 
jet with paternosters of silver-gilt, thirty-eight sets of similar 
aves with gaudees of silver-gilt, fourteen sets of blue glass 
with silver-gilt paternosters, twenty-eight sets of paternosters 
of jet, and fifteen of " mazer " or maple wood, and five sets of 
white bone for children. 

Many rosaries are described in the inventories of the 
Guild of Corpus Christi at York. 1 In 1465 there is recorded 
a " par precularium " or pair of beads of silver-gilt, with 
seventy-five beads and two "knopps" of pearl, with a crucifix, 
two brooches, and a silver-gilt ring. A finer example was of 
coral, with seventeen " gaudees " or trinkets of silver-gilt 
attached with the Psalm of our Lady, a brooch with the 
inscription Jhesu Christi and a gold ring. 

The decade or dicket ring, with ten projections upon the 
shank, was also used in the XV century for the counting of 
prayers. They are usually of rather coarse workmanship and 
poor material, and were probably worn as pendants. A 
hanging ring for counting prayers was left to her sister by 
Isabella Salvayn in 1472. 

During the Hundred Years' War and the Wars of the 
Roses the importance of the intrinsic value of jewels was 
particularly great, since they were almost the only acceptable 
security for loans. At the same time there was a marked 
increase in the artistic appreciation of their beauty. Richard 1 1 
had a passion for jewels worthy of a collector-king of the 
Renaissance. These were all causes contributing to the 
growing magnificence of personal ornaments : men dedicated 

1 Surtees Society, 1871, Vol. LVII, p. 290. 



fewer treasures in church and shrine, and acquired more for 
their own enjoyment. This tendency is seen in the secular 
designs of jewels, the enormous number recorded in inven- 
tories, and the profusion of precious stones with which they 
were set. Henry IV, for instance, owned a belt of black 
silk harnessed with gold and set with precious stones. Of 
the twenty-seven gold bars which ornamented it, thirteen were 
set with balas rubies with a pearl at each corner, and fourteen 
were enamelled with various flowers and similarly set with 
pearls. The buckle was set with a balas ruby and ten large 
and six small pearls, and the pendant was set in the same way 
with a ruby and thirteen pearls. A great profusion of pearls 
may be noticed in the inventories and portraits of this time ; 
an inventory of the jewels of Alice Ferrers 1 records 21,868, 
each valued separately. Oriental pearls were imported in 
considerable quantities from the East, and river pearls were 
also in common use. Fazio degli Uberti, describing the 
riches of Britain in his Dittamondo^ mentions the abundance 
of pearls found in these islands. 

As a consequence of the fashion for a profusion of gems, 
rings began to be set with more than one stone. Richard II, 
in the fifth year of his reign, 2 bought three rings, each set 
with a great diamond and four pearls. A ring of about this 
date, found in the ruins of the Palace of Eltham, 3 had the 
hoop set with a small cabochon ruby and five crystalline 
diamonds. Round the edge was the legend : 

" Qui me portera exploitera, 
Et a grant joye revendra," 

1 Devon, Issues of the Exchequer, II, p. 209. 2 p. 221. 

3 Archceologia, XIX, p. 411. 


which suggests that the ring was thought to be a talis- 
man. Margaret of Anjou introduced a fashion of wearing 
many rings. In her illuminated book of prayers to the Virgin, 
now in the library of Jesus College, Oxford, she is represented 
wearing two rings on the middle and third joints of every 
finger but the least, while the effigy of the wife of Sir 
Humphrey Stafford in Bromsgrove Church, Essex, 1 shews 
every finger but the little finger of the right hand thus 

The same taste for sumptuous adornment appears in the 
coronets of the male and female effigies of this time. A fine 
one is worn by Sir Hugh Calvely (c. 1400) in his effigy in 
Bunbury Church, Cheshire. It is divided into bands by 
corded lines, and decorated with large and small cinquefoil 
flowers, each petal of which is set with a round cabochon 
jewel, while the ground is studded with oblong and triangular 
table cut gems. The somewhat later effigy of Ralph Nevill, 
Earl of Westmorland, in Staindrop Church, Durham, displays 
a rounded circlet, perhaps derived from the heraldic orle, 
decorated with an engrailed stem of pearls from which grow 
springs of two circular gem-studded flowers and two pointed 
leaves. His two wives 2 both wear jewelled coronets and cup- 
like ornaments over the ears, with reticulated centres and 
jewelled borders. Jewelled frets, however, continued to be 
worn, and cover the hair on the effigy of Beatrice, wife of 
Thomas Fitzhugh, Earl of Arundel (i42o-4o). 3 Elizabeth, 
Lady Fitzhugh, who died in 1427,* left to her daughter 

1 Jones, Finger Ring Lore, p, 73. 2 Stothard, Monumental Effigies, p. 68. 

3 Ibid., p. 83. 4 Testamenta Vctusta, I, p. 213. 



Elizabeth a chaplet of pearls ornamented with double roses, 
and to her daughter Lore a head-tire with double roses of 
pearls, while an inventory of the jewels of James II of 
Scotland 1 mentions "afrete of the quenis oure set with grete 
perls sett in fouris and fouris." 

At the same time jewelled necklaces or carcanets came 
into fashion. One of the first allusions to an ornamental 
collar appears in the will of John of Gaunt (d. 1399), which 
refers to his best collar of diamonds. A little later many 
chains of small plain links were worn, sometimes with a 
hanging jewel ; such chains and pendants are shewn on the 
brasses of Elizabeth Halle at Herne, Kent (c. 1420), and of 
John Skerne at Kingston-on-Thames (1437). Sometimes, 
as, for instance, on the brass of Jane Keriell (c. 1460) at Ash- 
next-Sandwich, Kent, 2 the chain is rather longer and heavier, 
and after twice encircling the neck supports a pendant of 
quatrefoil shape. 

The inventory made in 1466 of the jewels of Sir John 
Howard 3 suggests that the rosary was at this time worn as a 
necklace ; it records " a pair of beads for a gentlewoman's 
neck gawded with 8 gawden of gold and 8 pearls." 

Jane Shore, wife of a Lombard Street jeweller and mistress 
of Edward IV, wears in her portraits 4 a double string of 
pearls round her throat, with a necklace below of pierced 
circular medallions, hung with a pendant of similar design 
set with pearls, and the portrait in the Ashmolean Museum 

1 Thomson, Collection of Inventories of the Royal Jewel House of Scotland. 
Druitt, Costume in Brasses, p. 268. 

3 Royal Commission on Historical MSS., yth report, p. 537. 
* At Eton and King's College, Cambridge. 



described as that of her rival, Elizabeth Woodville, shews 
a heavy chain worn close round her throat, clasped in front 
by a large quatrefoil ornament of gold. The brass of Joice, 
Lady Tiptoft, engraved about 1470, bears a flat, broad band 
of jewelled gold round her neck, with a quatrefoil pendant 
hanging in front. An even richer jewelled necklace, with a 
foliated edge and large brooch-like central ornament, is en- 
graved on the brass of Dame Elizabeth Say (d. 1473), in 
Broxbourne Church, Herts. The Holyrood portrait of 
Margaret of Denmark, wife of James II, of Scotland, 
painted about 1480, by Van der Goes (Plate XIV), depicts 
her as wearing a charming necklace of two rows of pearls, 
separated at intervals from each other by a larger bead, 
apparently of coloured enamel, with a graceful pendant in 
front, 1 a border to her dress of heavily jewelled gold, and a 
coronet and hair net studded and hung with pearls. 

About this date transparent veils were worn stiffened with 
wires over the jewelled cauls, which had been fashionable for 
some time. Several brasses which depict this headdress, 
such as that of Isabella Cheyne (d. 1485), at Blickling, 
Norfolk, and that of the two wives of Thomas Peyton 
(1484), at Isleham, Cambs, shew rich necklaces formed of a 
series of jewelled pear-shaped pendants. 

The XV century was a time of growth, of turmoil, and of 
splendour, but the forces that dominated it were at war, and it 
was not an age of fruition. Its superstition, its sentiment, 
its magnificence, its innovations, and its conservatism were 

1 A similar necklace is shewn in the portrait of the daughter of Tommaso Portinari in 
the Uffizi by the same artist. 


expressed in its art ; but the Reformers despoiled its churches 
of their treasures, the scholars of the next generation ignored 
its philosophy, the architects rebuilt its castles, the Tudor 
writers dulled the glory of its literature, and its jewels were 
cast into the melting-pot to be remodelled by the goldsmiths 
of the Renaissance. 



f "^HE close of the XV century marks the decline of the 
mediaeval tradition and the rise of a new spirit in art. 
Nevertheless at the end of the Middle Ages, when the 
influence of the Renaissance was leading the artists of the 
Latin countries to turn to Italy for guidance, the comparative 
remoteness and isolation of England made its Gothic style 
more national and more original than it had ever been before. 
Perpendicular architecture, though it did not dominate the 
minor arts as the Gothic style had done in the XIII century, 
helped to keep alive some part of the mediaeval tradition 
under the new dynasty. The cathedrals and their shrines 
continued to be enriched with jewelled ornaments in the 
traditional style, and private persons still wore jewels of which 
the form or design had been consecrated by the Church. 

Classical figures and architectural forms had hardly begun 
to encroach on the domain of ecclesiastical art, and the sym- 
bolism of the Middle Ages was still understood outside the 
Church itself. At the same time it was less generally em- 
ployed, and came to be confined to objects which had in 
themselves some religious significance. The rosary of Henry 
VIII, 1 for instance, is definitely mediaeval in design. The 

1 In the collection of the Duke of Devonshire. 


finely carved boxwood beads hang from a finger-ring engraved 
on one side Honi soit qui mal y pense and on the other Poeni 
Dei Adjutorium meum. Below this is a cross with a crucifix 
on one side. The ends of the limbs are trilobed, and bear 
within circular medallions on one side representations of the 
four Evangelists, and on the other of the four Fathers of the 
Church. Then follow ten Ave Maria beads, each decorated 
with five medallions and a scroll inscribed with one article of 
the Creed. On one medallion of each is carved the Apostle 
associated with that particular sentence of the Creed, and on 
another is the corresponding personage from the Old Testa- 
ment. Next comes the large Paternoster bead, on one side 
of which is the legend Henricus Octavus R (ex] A(iiglice) 
and on the other the Arms of England. This large bead 
opens and discloses two minute carvings, one of the ' Mass 
of St. Gregory " and the other of the Virgin and Child in 
glory. 1 

Other traditional forms also continued in use. Tau 
crosses are shown hanging from a necklace or chain in a 
portrait of Queen Jane Seymour in the collection of Mr. H. 
Dent Brocklehurst, 2 in miniatures of Catherine Howard and 
portraits of Mary Tudor, and on several brasses of about 
1528, for instance, that of the four wives of Sir Richard Fitz 
Lewes at Ingrave, Essex. 3 

Crosses of other shapes were also worn, often decorated 

1 I owe this description to the kindness of Mr. J. P. Maine, librarian at Chatsworth. 

2 Burlington Fine Arts Club Exhibition of Early English Portraits, No. 6. 

3 This symbol was used as a consecration cross in the early Church and as the head 
of abbatial staves : its significance comes from the Vulgate version of Ezekiel ix. 4, 
describing the elect as having "Signa Thau super frontes." 


with the emblems of the Passion, and sometimes opening to 
shew a crucifix. (Plate XVII, 8.) Other pendants were 
composed of the monogram I H S ; they are shewn in por- 
traits of Jane Seymour, 1 and are mentioned in inventories of 
Catharine Howard 2 and Mary Tudor. 3 

The history of such jewels comes to an end with the 
Reformation, when the accumulated treasures of the mediaeval 
church were wantonly destroyed. Orders were given to 
cast all relics from their reliquaries and to break up all the 
shrines. The jewels of the Middle Ages were flung into the 
melting-pot to be refashioned, together with the art, the 
learning and the piety of the old church, to serve the needs of 
the new age. From the shrine of St. Thomas a Becket 
alone two great chests filled with "gold and jewels of an 
inestimable value " which six or eight men could hardly move 
were taken for the King's use. 4 The great diamond presented 
to the shrine by Louis VII in 1 179 v/as set in a ring for the 
king. Much of this treasure was transformed into massive 
chains. These were of such size and weight as to be really 
a form of currency ; it is said that when Sir Thomas Gresham 
died the greater part of his great wealth was found to be in 
this shape. 5 Henry VIII in 1511 paid ^"199 to his jeweller 
Roy for a chain weighing 98 ounces ; Elizabeth received as a 

1 In Imperial Gallery of Vienna, in the possession of Lord Sackville (Burlington Fine 
Arts Club, Exhibition of Early English Portraits, No. 46), and in a miniature belonging 
to the Duke of Buccleuch (ibid., Miniatures, No. 5). 

2 B.M. Stawe MS., 559. 

3 Madden, Privy Purse Expenses of the Princess Mary, p. 186. An unusually late 
instance of the fashion is a design by the Jacobean jeweller Arnold Lulls. 

4 Stowe, Annales, 1631 ed., p. 483. 

5 Clifford Smith, Jewellery, p. 237. 


New Year's gift in 1588 a chain of gold weighing 161 ounces, 
and Mary, Queen of Scots had a chain made out of all the 
angels she received as New Year's gifts. Besides these great 
jewelled collars were worn, and the dress was studded and 
clasped with jewels. 

The intrusion of the new style in art was gradual : detail 
by detail the edifice of men's taste was reformed until even 
the foundations were changed. The memorial Chapel which 
Henry VII erected for his father's tomb marks the flowering 
time of Perpendicular architecture, but it is remembered in 
the history of English art because Torrigiano, Rovezzano and 
Benedetto da Maiano were employed to work upon the tomb 
itself. Since the change of style first shewed itself in detail 
the minor arts were quick to feel its influence. Goldsmith's 
work was profoundly influenced by the Renaissance, not only 
through the work of other nations as a whole, but through 
that of individual artists, such as Holbein and the ' Little 
Masters" of Germany and the Low Countries. Such in- 
fluence reached a larger class of craftsmen than the artists' 
immediate pupils or apprentices by means of the engraved 
sheets and books of designs which now began to be published. 
At the same time the typical delight of the Renaissance 
in the colour and brilliance of jewels, and the importance 
given to purely ornamental design, resulted in a gradual break 
being made between the traditions of jewellery and gold-work 
of other kinds, the unity of which had been maintained in the 
Middle Ages by metal workers skilled in all the branches 
of their art. At the time of the Renaissance there sprang 
up in Italy and elsewhere a class of craftsmen in lavori di 


minuteria who devoted themselves to the making of personal 

Many such artists came over to England and entered the 
royal service ; the Book of Payments of Henry VIII records 
jewellers such as Cavalcanti, Van der Goes (or John of 
Antwerp), John Baptista de Consolavera, John of Utrecht 
and Alexander of Brussels, as well as many native craftsmen 
such as John Angell, Morgan Fenwolf, John Freeman, 
John Twiselton, Thomas Exmewe, Nicholas Worley, John 
Monday and William Davy. In 1536 the great artist, Hans 
Holbein the younger, entered the royal service, and till his 
death in 1 543 drew those fine designs for jewellery 1 on which 
much of our knowledge for this period is based. (Plate XVI.) 

They shew, indeed, examples of nearly all the types of 
form and decoration recorded in contemporary inventories of 
jewels: chased and pierced gold set with faceted and cabochon 
gems, ornamented with enamel, champlevd, en ronde bosse, or 
painted, in patterns of scroll and strapwork, arabesques and 
conventional foliage, diversified with little figures and inscribed 
scrolls. Sometimes these figures represent the scriptural 
subjects of the old tradition. The later enseignes of gold 
and jewels kept for a time the religious subjects inherited 
from the pilgrim's badge ; a picture of Arthur Prince of 
Wales, at Windsor, 2 shews him wearing a golden enseigne 
decorated with the figure of John the Baptist, a favourite 
subject, while one of Henry VIII at Hampton Court as 
a young man 3 depicts him with an enseigne enamelled with 

1 Many are in the British Museum. See E. His., Dessins d'ornaments de Hans 
Holbein le jeune. 

3 Archceologia, XXXIX, 1863, p. 246. 3 Ibid., p. 250. 



figures of the Virgin and Child. The inventory of his jewels 
made in I526 1 describes enseignes with the figures of St. 
Michael, between red and white roses, and of St. George. 
Holbein's designs for enseignes include one with a repre- 
sentation of the Annunciation in the centre, and a wreath 
border, inscribed "Origo mundi melioris" ; and another with a 
" majesty " or representation of the Trinity within a charming 
border of Tudor roses with " Trinitatis gloria satiabimur" 
A beautiful reliquary pendant of Sir Thomas More's (pre- 
served at Stonyhurst College, to which institution it was 
bequeathed by his descendant, a Jesuit Father, in 1773) is 
a circular locket of gold enamelled on one side with the figure 
of St. George, and on the other with the emblems of the 
Passion and the figure of Christ by the open sepulchre. It 
opens to disclose a relic ; round the rim is the inscription 
" O pas si graviora dabit his quoque finem" Sometimes the 
inscription alone was of a scriptural kind. The inventory of 
the royal jewels for I53O 2 mentions a brooch with "a gentle- 
woman luting and a scripture about it." This brooch is 
depicted in a portrait of a lady in the possession of Mr. 
Ayerst Buttery, 3 probably painted by Holbein just before his 
death and finished by another hand. (Plate XVII, 6.) The 
brooch, circular in shape, is wreathed in gold, with a pink 
enamel flower at the top and a satyr's head on either side. 
On the central medallion is enamelled a lady dressed in pink, 
with a plumed hat and slashed sleeves, seated on a green 

1 Brewer, Letters and Papers of Henry VII 7, Vol. IV, pt. i, Nos. 1906 and 1907. 

2 Ibid., IV, pt. 3, No. 9789. 

3 From the time of Henry VIII till recently in the possession of the now extinct family 
of Bodenham of Rotherwas. 



ground and playing on a lute, the body of which is set with 
a ruby. Above is a scroll with the motto " Praise the Lorde 
for ever more." 

Figure work of another kind is characteristic of the new 
Italianate style. Several jewels decorated with "naked men" 
were given by the King to Katharine Howard on her marriage 1 
in 1541. One of these is described as "a fair brooch of gold 
enamelled with white, having a border of antique boys about 
the same, with a very fair square diamond holden by a man 
whose coat and boots are enamelled with blue, and a king, 
crowned, with a sceptre in his hand at th' one end thereof and 
V person mo' standing behind the same with scriptures over 
their heads, with the king's words under the said brooch." 

A fine design in colours for a pendant, made in Antwerp 
for the English market in 1 546, shews the central stone sup- 
ported by a male and female faun enamelled in natural 
colours. 2 The same mixture of faceted stones and enamelled 
figures is shewn in the jewels depicted in the portrait of Mary 
Tudor, belonging to the Society of Antiquaries. Besides 
a pearl and sapphire necklace supporting the Tau cross that 
appears in portraits of her mother, she wears a pendant com- 
posed of a large gem surrounded by figures of satyrs in 
enamel, and hanging from her waist a round pendant, the 
face of which is set with a cross crosslet of sapphires or 
diamonds with figures between the limbs. 

Apart from their subject, jewels of the early Renaissance 
decorated with figure work tend to fall into two categories : 

1 Stowe MS., 559. 

2 Drawing at the Record Office, Calendar of State Papers, Foreign and Domestic, 
Henry VIII, Vol. XXI, pt. i, p. 55. 


pictorial jewels, usually carried out entirely in enamel, with 
gems, if used at all, only in the framework ; and jewels in 
which a single figure, or a group of half monstrous forms, is 
employed as the actual setting of the gems. Examples of 
this later type are to be found among the designs of Holbein. 
(Plate XVI). It was not until the second half of the 
century that enamelled and jewelled figures in the round were 

A considerable proportion of the designs of Holbein and 
of the jewels described in contemporary inventories or depicted 
in Tudor portraits depend for their effect upon the precious 
stones with which they are set. The gems of the church 
shrines had fallen into private hands, and foreign merchants, 
such as the Fuggers of Augsburg, supplied many splendid 
gems to the King and to courtiers lately enriched by the 
grant of Abbey lands. Henry VIII had a passion for 
magnificence and real taste for fine jewels. Only a short 
time before his death he purchased the famous jewel, The 
Three Brothers," that had belonged to Charles the Bold of 
Burgundy a great square diamond, surrounded by three 
balas rubies and four enormous pearls. Such ornaments are 
naturally more often reset than those that depend upon their 
workmanship for their beauty, and our knowledge of Tudor 
jewels of the kind is derived for the most part from con- 
temporary portraits and drawings. Two of Holbein's designs 
are for the setting of a larger and a smaller quadrilateral gem 
in a scrolled and foliated setting (Plate XVI, 8), and three 
others (Plate XVI, i, 3, and 7), are intended for the setting 
of another collection of gems in rather more elaborate work. 


An ornamental pendant of this period is fortunately still 
in existence. The Penruddock jewel is believed to have 
been presented to Sir George Penruddock, of Compton 
Chamberlayne, by Catherine Parr, in 1 544 ; he is shewn 
wearing it in a portrait by Lucas de Heere, which has 
descended with the jewel to its present owner, Mr. Charles 
Penruddock, of Compton Chamberlayne. The jewel is a 
pendant formed of a triangular cabochon sapphire, surrounded 
by rubies and diamonds in an enamelled setting, with a round 
pearl hanging below. 

Of even greater beauty are the jewels in which the im- 
portance of gems and enamel work are more evenly balanced. 
Holbein's splendid portrait of Anne of Cleves, in the Louvre, 
shews a necklace, pendant cross, and borders to the cap and 
dress made of leafy scrolls of gold divided by roses of white 
enamel with centres of ruby and pearl. 1 (Plate XVII, 7.) 

If the jewel had a solid background this was sometimes 
ornamented in champlevd enamel, usually in black, with a 
design of those arabesques introduced into Renaissance 
Europe by the Oriental metal workers of Venice. Such 
designs offer a close analogy with those of the embroidery 
known as " Spanish-work " in inventories of the time, and it 
is probably enamel of this kind that is meant by the phrase 
" in manner of Spanish work " in inventories of the XVI and 
early XVII century. 2 Holbein uses such enamel as a back- 
ground to gems in some of the most beautiful of his designs 

1 Cf. Inventory of Mary Tudor, 1543 (Madden, op. cit., p. 185), " a girdle of goldsmythes 
worke set wt Roses of rubies and perie." (Plate XVII, 7.) 

2 e.g. Rymer, Fcedera, XVII, p. 509: "Twenty faire dymonds sett in Buttons of 
Goulde in manner of Spanish worke." 


for pendants (Plate XVI, 2 and 5), combined with initials in 
a design for a "tabulet" (Plate XVII, 3), and as the sole 
decoration of a bracelet of linked plaques. (Plate XVII, 2.) 
The earliest engraved designs for gold-work known to have 
been printed in England are panels in this style. 1 It again 
appears as the accessory to jewels on the Crown of Scotland, 
discovered early in the last century by Sir Walter Scott and 
some Edinburgh officials in a locked chest in Edinburgh 
Castle. The Crown is partly made of the gold and jewels of one 
of the crowns of Robert Bruce, taken by Edward I on the field of 
Methven, and was remodelled and considerably added to in the 
reign of James V (c. 1 540). The circlet is set with carbuncles, 
jacinths, amethysts, topazes, crystals, and Oriental and Scotch 
pearls. The enamelled bands above, the cresting of jewelled 
rosettes and fleurs-de-lys, the arches decorated with golden 
leaves enamelled in red, and the mound of blue enamel 
studded with golden stars, are all of the XVI century. The 
cross that crowns the whole of black enamel in a design of 
delicate gold arabesques, set with amethysts and pearls bears 
on the back the initials I.R. V., which shew that this also 
was added in the time of James V. 

The Renaissance was an age of individualism, and the 
personal cipher, badge or device became of importance as the 
mark of the individual. One of the fashions of the Tudor 
period was for pendants in the form of initials. Designs for 
them, H. and I., perhaps Henry and Jane Seymour, and R. 

1 Moryse and Damashin renewed and encreased very profitable for Goldsmythes and 
Embroderers by Thomas Geminus at London, Anno 1548. The author was a Fleming ; the 
only known copy of his work is in the Landesmuseum der Provinz Westfalen, at Miinster. 
See Proc. Soc. Ants. Land., 2nd series, XXIX, 1917, p. i. 


and E., of foliated gold, jewelled and hung with pearls, are 
included among the drawings of Hans Holbein. (Plate 
XVI, 4.) A golden B with three pendant pearls is shewn 
in a portrait of Anne Boleyn in the National Portrait Gallery, 
and a miniature of Queen Jane 1 shews her wearing one 
formed of the initials A. B., which may have been given her 
by Anne Boleyn when Jane Seymour acted as her maid-of- 
honour. The 1530 inventory of the jewels of Henry VIII 
includes "a diamond Y, with a hanging pearl; a diamond M, 
standing in a flower, and an E, enamelled red," while the 
1587 inventory of Elizabeth's jewels 2 describes a brooch in 
the form of a jewelled H that she probably inherited from her 
father. The many matrimonial ventures of the King led to 
much altering and resetting of these initial jewels. 3 The 
fashion extended to other ornaments in 1528* the King 
had "a carkayne with a blue heart and H. and K." -and even 
to the decoration of the whole dress. Hall in his Chronicles 
records this fashion in describing the pageantry of some 
jousting held in February, 151 1. 5 "In the garden was the 
Kyng and V. with him appareiled in garments of purple 
satyn, all of cuttes w th H. and K., every edge garnished with 
frysed gold, and every garment full of poysees, made of letters 
of fine gold in bullyon as thicke as they might be, and euery 
persone had his name in like letters of massy gold. The fyrst 
Cuer loyall^ the second Bone volure, in the iii Bone espoier, 

1 Ascribed to Holbein. Shewn at the Archaeological Institute in 1861 by Mr. John 
Carr. 2 British Museum, MS. Royal Append., 68. 

3 See Brewer, Letters and Papers, II, pt. I, No. 284. 

4 Ibid., IV, pt. 2, No. 5114. 

5 1809 edition, p. 519. For an illustration of this tournament see Vetusta Monumenta, 
I, Nos. 21-26. Motto of Henry VIII at the Field of the Cloth of Gold. 


The iiii Valyaunt desyre, The fyft Bone foy, The vi Amoure 
Loyall, their hosen, Cappes and cotes, were full of poyses and 
H. and K. of fine gold in bullion, so that the grounde coulde 
scarce appeare and yet was in euery voyde place spangles of 
gold. . . . After the kyng and his compaignions had daunced, 
he appointed the ladies, gentlewomen and the Ambassadours 
to take the letters of their garmentes, in token of liberalitie, 
which thing the common people perceyuyng ranne to the kyng, 
and stripped hym into his hosen and dublet, and all his com- 
paignions in likewise. . . . At this banket a shipeman of 
London caught certayn letters which he sould to a goldsmyth 
for iii 1. xiii s. viii d. by reason whereof it appeared that the 
garmentes were of a great value." This liking for emblems 
and impresas is typical of the Renaissance. The designs of 
Holbein include two inscribed with the motto " Servar voglio 
quel che ho giurato" and one ornamented with a design in 
which dolphins, horns of abundance, and a pair of compasses 
are introduced with " Pmdentement et par compas incontinent 

Collars of private badges and devices, however, gave way 
before the collars of the formally constituted orders of 
knighthood. In the fourteenth year of Henry's reign the 
collar of the Garter was ordered to be officially worn * on 
solemn occasions, weighing thirty ounces and formed of 
medallions of red and white roses and encircled by the 
Garter. At other times the pendant known as the Lesser 
George was to be worn hanging from a small gold chain, and 
in time of war, illness, or travel, depending from a silk lace. 

1 Anstis, op. cit., II, p. 339. 


The collar itself existed before this edict. John de Vere, 
Earl of Oxford, in the last year of the reign of Henry VII 
bequeathed to his cousin "a coler of Garters and rede Roses 
of Gold." The inventory made after the death of Henry 
VIII 1 mentions "a coller of crowne golde of garters con- 
teyning xxiij garters and xxiij laces knytt together." The 
modern collar, however, has twenty-six medallions and knots, 
and was probably lengthened in order to hang free of the wigs 
of the XVII and XVIII centuries. The original statute 
prohibits the decoration of the collar with anything but enamel, 
and has always been obeyed. The absence of early surviving 
examples of this collar may be due to the practice illustrated 
in the will of Charles Brandon, Duke of Suffolk (d. 1544) of 
melting the collar on the death of the owner into a cup and 
presenting this to the King. 2 

The decoration of the Great George was left to the dis- 
cretion of the owner. 3 Its design, with the figure of the 
mounted saint slaying the dragon hanging free, without the 
encircling garter of the Lesser George, was well fitted to 
display the skill of the Renaissance goldsmith. A good 
example is shewn in the portrait of Sir William Fitzwilliam, 

1 B.M., Stmve MS., 560. 

2 Existing official collars of this date are the Beverley Waits' collars, formed of 
pierced linked medallions with alternately a beaver and an eagle ; those of the Exeter 
Waits (c. 1500) with small round medallions with X and R, and of the civic minstrels of 
Norwich and Bristol. The last, of the time of Mary Tudor, are formed of circles of 
purled wire enclosing the letters C.B., alternating with medallions in the shape of a rose 
and pomegranate impaled. 

3 Cf. the Georges described in the inventory of the jewels of Henry Howard, Earl of 
Northumberland, in 1614: "A large Agatt George set with diamonds; a george cutt in 
blewe stone called Lapis Lazarus circuled with golde and enamelled onelie ; a round 
embossed George of Gold and enamelled which usually hanged at the Collar of the order ; 
a pomander George, with three pendant rubies, and a watche George." 


Lord High Admiral, in the Fitzwilliam Museum at Cam- 
bridge. One is described in the inventory of the jewels of 
Henry VIII, made after his death: a "George on horse- 
backe the foreparte of the George of dyamounte the mayle of 
the coate and rivets of the same of silver half gilte with a 
sworde in his hands of golde a lozenged Dyamount like 
sheelde and a dragon of golde." 

A fashion which gives the modern world an idea of the 
somewhat barbaric splendour of this time is that for jewelled 
tooth and ear-picks of gold. The most distinguished artists 
of the day designed these little objects, which were generally 
worn slung by a cord from the neck. 1 Canon W. S. Bevan 
exhibited at the Tudor Exhibition at the Grosvenor Galleries 
in 1890 an ornament said to have belonged to Anne Boleyn : 
a pendant whistle of engraved gold in the shape of a pistol, 2 
containing various tooth and ear-picks of the same metal. 
Designs for these whistles by such distinguished artists as 
Diirer and Woeiriot are still in existence ; and Henry VIII's 
inventory for I5i9 3 records one hanging from a ring and set 
with a ruby and seven diamonds. 

1 Thomson, Collection of Inventories of the Royal Jewel House of Scotland, p. 5. 
Inventory of jewels of James II in 1488 : Item twa tuthpikes of gold with a cheny a perle 
and erepike. 

Brewer, Letters and Papers, IV, No. 6789. Inventory of jewels of Henry VIII in 
1530. Two gold toothpicks with H. and E., a gold toothpick and earpick with a chain, 
and two others, one with a ruby and pearl, and one with a ruby and diamond. 

Nichols, Progresses of Queen Elizabeth, I, p. 380. New Year's Gifts in 1573-4, "Six 
small tothe picks of golde, geven by Mrs. Snow, one of them lost by her Majestic." 

Ibid., I, p. 412. New Year's Gifts in 1574-5, "An eare picke of gold enamuled, gar- 
nished with sparcks of rubyes, blue saphirs, and seede pearle." 

Ibid., II, p. 52, 1576-7, "a Tothe and ear picke of gold, being a dolphin enamuled, 
with a perle pendaunte, 16 small rubyes being but sparcks, and 5 sparks dyamonds." 

2 Cf. Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, p. 255, New Year's Gifts for 1578-9, 
" A tothe picke of golde made gonne fation." 

3 Brewer, Letters and Papers of Henry VIII, Vol. Ill, pt. i, No. 463. 



The rosary or reliquary worn hanging from the girdle in 
the XV century was replaced by books of devotion or 
"tabulets" in ornamental bindings. This seems to have 
been -a fashion favoured by Anne Boleyn : not only did she 
give such books to the ladies of her Court, but when Cardinal 
Wolsey was ill "she took incontinent a tabulet of gold hanging 
at her girdle, and delivered it to Master Buttes with very gentle 
and comfortable words and commendations to the Cardinal." 

The great inventory made on the death of Henry VIII 2 
records among the jewels in the Secret Jewel House of the 
Tower, "A booke of golde enamelled clasped with a Rubie 
having on thone syde a crosse of Dyamountes and vj 
other Dyamountes and thother syde a flower de Luce of 
Dyamountes and iiij Rubies with a pendant of white saphyrs 
and the Armes of England. Whiche Booke is garnished 
with small Emerades and Rubies hanging to a cheyne pillor 
fashion sett with xv knottes everie one conteyning iii Rubies 
(one lacking) and a vyce to open a clocke with one rubie and 
a Dyamounte." 

Among Holbein's designs for jewels is one for the covers 
of such a book, decorated with the initials T. W. and I. W. 3 
(Plate XVII, 3) on a ground of arabesques. Mary Tudor 
in I542 4 owned several such books, including one of gold, 
"wt the Kings face and his graces mothers." The jewelled 
covers of a Prayer Book said to have been worn by Queen 

1 Cavendish, Life of Wolsey, p. 288, 1827 edition. 

2 Incomplete copy, B.M. Stowe MS. , p. 560. 

3 A Prayer Book, said to have been given by Anne Boleyn to a lady of the Wyatt 
family, is bound in a gold cover enamelled black in a design closely resembling Holbein's 
drawing, but without initials. It is now in the possession of the Earl of Romney. 
Archceologia, XLIV, 1873, p. 259. 

4 Madden, op. cit., p. 175. 



Elizabeth, now in the British Museum (Plate XVII, i), are 
decorated in coloured enamel on a gold ground with the 
Worshipping of the Serpent in the Wilderness and the 
Judgment of Solomon. 

The same subject is also represented on another pair of 
covers, now unmounted, in the same collection. On this 
certain figures are enamelled in opaque white, but the greater 
part of the design is executed in gold. One side shews the 
mothers coming to Solomon for judgment, the other the 
rightful mother kneeling before the King to beseech the life 
of her child. Another beautifully mounted book, a manu- 
script copy of the last prayer of Edward VI, is known to 
have been worn by Elizabeth, and is now preserved among 
the Hunsdon heirlooms in the possession of Lord Fitzhardinge. 
(Plate XVII, 5.) The covers are of gold, inlaid with black 
enamel, with a rosette of white enamel in each corner. The 
centre of one side is filled with a shell cameo head, and that 
of the other with a boss of translucent red and green enamel. 
This, like all the examples described, has a loop for suspension 
on each of the upper sides. 

Another XVI century fashion was the use of jewels 
filled with aromatic gums, of which the perfume did some- 
thing to counteract the foul air of the cities. The mode for 
such pomanders was introduced into England from Bur- 
gundy, and references to "pomes de muske" may be found 
in some inventories of the XV century. They are shewn 
hanging from the girdle in several female effigies. 1 The 

1 For instance, Dame Ellen Legh (c. 1527) in Winwick Church, Lanes, and the 
daughters of Sir Robert Newport (d. 1570) in Wroxeter Church, Shropshire. 


scented ball was usually enclosed in a metal case, pierced and 
opening in the middle. A XVI century globular pomander 
of this kind, found by a bargeman on the Surrey side of the 
Thames, is now in the British Museum. (Plate XVII, 4.) 
It is made of six half hoops of gold, ornamented with purled 
wire, held together by a slightly broader band similarly orna- 
mented. One end has a ring for suspension, the other ter- 
minates in a small flat flower of gold. Each angle between 
the hoops has been set with a pearl, several of which remain. 
When discovered it still retained some of its original contents, 
which when warmed gave off a strong aromatic scent. 

The reign of Edward VI was not so long, nor was his 
Court so magnificent, as to make its mark in the history of 
English jewellery. Mary Tudor's adherence to the old 
religion brought some forms of religious jewellery back into 
favour. Her inventories record rosaries of " lapis lazell 
gauded with gold," of agate, garnet, and gold enamelled 
black. 1 The pictorial jewels described in her inventories also 
reflect her tastes ; nearly all are decorated with scriptural 
designs. In 1542 she had brooches with representations of 
the history of Moses, Susannah, Solomon and Abraham, and 
in 1543 there are also recorded brooches with the " History 
of David," " Moses striking water out of the rock," " Noyes 
floode," the Passion, " How Christe healed the man of the 
palsey," and "thistory of Jacob being a Slepe," set in mother- 
of-pearl. The only secular scene is " Thistory of Piramys 
and Tysbe," a subject represented on a locket once in the 
collection of Sir Wollaston Franks. 2 It does not appear that 

1 Madden, op. cit., p. 179. 2 Proc. Soc. Ants. Land., 1863, III, p. 316. 



she had the family taste for jewels as strongly as her sister, 
but they were then an important part of the display necessary 
for maintaining the glamour of the royal position, and she did 
not fail to wear them. 

Her portrait by Johannes Corvus in the National Portrait 
Gallery shews splendid jewels (Plate XVIII, 2), and that by 
an unknown artist in the University Galleries, Oxford, a 
remarkably fine belt of gold, set with groups of six large 
pearls alternating with medallions of gold set with oval tur- 
quoises surrounded by rubies. 

Holinshed, describing her progresses in 1553, writes: 
' She had on her head a Kail of cloth of tinsell beset with 
pearls and stones, and above the same upon her head a round 
circle of gold beset so richly with precious stones that the 
value thereof was inestimable ; the same Kail and circle 
being so massive and ponderous that she was faine to 
bear up her head with her hand." Foreign influences 
appear in her reign in jewels of the engraved mother-of-pearl 
then fashionable on the Continent, and in the introduction 
from Spain of the fashion of wearing ear-rings. Her portrait 
by Johannes Corvus in the National Portrait Gallery shews 
her wearing long ear-rings of pear-shaped ruby drops threaded 
on gold wire. 

Holinshed, in his Chronicles, records that " Some lusty 
courtiers also, and gentlemen of courage, do wear either rings 
of gold, stones, or pearls in their ears, whereby they imagine 
the workmanship of god to be no little amended," and Philip 
Stubbes wrote against them i 1 " Women are so far bewitched 

1 Anatomic of Abuses, 1583. 


as they are not ashamed to make holes in their ears, whereat 
they hang rings and other jewels of gold and precious stones ; 
but this" (he has in fairness to add) "is not so much frequented 
among women as men." 

The Reformation and the Dissolution of the Monasteries 
endowed Henry VIII with the treasures he needed to attain 
and express his personal magnificence, but the country was 
left disturbed and unsettled during the two succeeding reigns. 
It was not until the accession of Elizabeth freed England 
from fear that the arts progressed with a like impulse to that 
they had enjoyed under her royal father. 




full tide of the Renaissance did not reach England 
till the age of Elizabeth. Art, literature, and learning 
then blossomed in the sunshine of prosperity, and 
strengthened the sense of national life which had helped to 
give them birth. This nationalism depended upon individuals 
for its inspiration, and so helped men to realize their indi- 
viduality. Through it they shared in a splendid unity of 
thought and feeling, each expressing it according to his will. 

These conditions are reflected even in the minor arts. 
Decoration accepted a certain unity of principle, but fulfilled 
it in an infinite variety of design. Individual fancy was 
respected up to a point when the fantastic and the monstrous 
were admired because they were unusual, but even the 
strangest of these conceits was indefinably marked with the 
national stamp. 

The fashion for ;< emblems " and impresc fulfilled men's 
need of symbolic expression at a time when the mediaeval 
tradition of Christian symbolism had decayed in an age of 
metaphor. They had no canon and no unity ; their single 
words formed no coherent speech, and individual fancy alone 
dictated their forms. Such devices were admirably displayed 

1 See Wither's Emblems (c. 1560), etc. 


in the decoration of personal ornaments. Many of the jewels 
presented to Elizabeth as New Year's gifts were ornamented 
with emblematic designs ; among them were jewels with 
Alpha and Omega, 1 with a dog leading a man over a bridge, 
"and on the backsyde certayne verces written," 2 with a dead 
tree with mistletoe on it, 3 with a cat and mice playing with her. 4 

Sir Christopher Hatton was one of the most accomplished 
of the Queen's courtiers in designing these gifts; on one 
occasion he presented her with " an attire for the head, con- 
teyning seven peeces of golde, three of them being crownes 
emperial . . . and four peeces being victoryes, garnished with 
dyamonds, rubyes, perles, and ophalls on thone side," and at 
the beginning of 1586 with another head ornament, composed 
of gordian knots, alphas and omegas, and twenty pendants, 
all set with jewels. 5 

The Darnley or Lennox jewel at Windsor (Plate A, i) 6 
is one of the finest emblematic jewels in existence. It was 
made by the order of Lady Margaret Douglas in memory 
of her husband, Matthew Stuart, Earl of Lennox, who was 
killed in 1571. In its emblems her eventful and unhappy 
life may be traced. It is a gold pendant in the shape of a 
heart the cognizance of the house of Douglas one face of 
which is ornamented with a large heart-shaped cabochon 
sapphire between wings enamelled in red, blue, and green, 
above which is a floriated crown (studded with three small 
rubies and an emerald) in allusion to the royal descent of the 

1 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, 258. 2 Ibid., II, 74. 

s Ibid., II, 253. * Ibid., 388. 

6 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, p. 45. 

6 See Fraser Tytler, Historical Notes on the Lennox or Darnley Jewel. 


Douglases. Round this are figures of Faith with her cross 
and lamb, Hope with her anchor, Victory with the olive 
branch, and Truth with a mirror. The crown opens and 
discloses two hearts united by a gold knot and a buckle, a 
charge borne on the shields of both Douglas and Lennox. 
Below these is the motto, " Quat ve resolv" and a cipher of 
the letters M.S.L. which stand for Margaret Stuart Lennox 
and for her husband Matthew Stuart Lennox crowned with 
green leaves. The sapphire heart also opens, and shews two 
clasped hands holding a red band, a green hunting horn, and 
a death's head and crossbones below. Around is the legend 
" Deathe sal desohe" Round the heart runs the legend : 

" Qrha hopes still constantly vith patience 
Sal obtein victoire in vair pretence." 

(" He who hopes still constantly with patience shall obtain 
victory in their claim.") This " pretence " may have been the 
hidden aspiration of the Lennoxes to the Scotch throne, or 
may possibly allude to their efforts in the same direction 
towards the marriage of their son to Mary Queen of Scots. 

The reverse of the pendant shows a corresponding in- 
scription : 

' ' My stait to yir I may compaer 
For zou qrha is of bontes rair" 

(" My state to these I may compare for you who are of good- 
ness rare.") The gold ground of this side of the locket is 
enamelled with a sun in glory among blue clouds studded 
with stars, with the moon in the opposite corner. Below the 
sun is a crowned salamander in flames, and beneath this is a 
pelican in her piety. Beneath the moon is a phoenix in 



flames, and in the lower corner is the figure of a man lying 
on the ground, with a sunflower growing near him from a 
minute object, probably a crown, near a laurel tree with birds 
in the branches. The pelican may represent the love of 
Margaret Lennox for her son ; the sun, to which the moon 
and birds are turned, and the phcenix (one of her badges) 
Queen Elizabeth, while the salamander is well known as one 
of the badges of the house of Douglas. The connection and 
the inner meaning of all these emblems is lost to us with the 
secret history of Margaret Lennox's intrigues for her son 

The locket opens to disclose a third series of pictorial 
emblems within. First there is a stake surrounded by flames, 
and in the flames what appear to be little crosses. This may 
refer to the religious persecution suffered by Margaret 
Lennox at the time when she was thought to be a Catholic. 
Near to this is the figure of a crowned lady seated in a royal 
chair, surrounded by a scroll inscribed " Gar tel my releas" 
i.e. " Make known my release," which yields the anagram, 
" Mat S. L. ye real reg." Next comes a winged figure with 
two faces and a satyr's legs, standing on a celestial sphere, 
holding an hourglass in one hand and with the other pulling 
a female figure, probably Truth, out of a well. On the other 
side of this figure of Time is a representation of the jaws of 
hell, with a crowd of little demons being vomited forth. 
Above is a scroll inscribed " Tym gares al leir" -''Time 
make all learn" which gives the anagram "Margaret is leil." 
All this may have reference to her successful vindication of 
her legitimacy, while the crowned figure previously described 


may symbolize her later assured position. Immediately above 
the sphere on which Time stands is the inscription " Ze seim 
al my plesur" -"You seem all my pleasure" -which gives 
the anagram "My Ps. Eliza rules me." In the lower part 
of the heart are two groups : a soldier who has overthrown 
another warrior, and a crowned warrior with a drawn sword 
holding a lady by the hair. 

His accession to power is said to have been first made 
known to James I by an emblematic jewel in the form of a 
dark lantern which Harrington sent to signify that the light 
of the Queen's life was dying. 

Another group of jewels, generally political in intent and 
emblematical in design or inscription, includes those modelled 
on contemporary medals and presented as rewards and token 
of royal favour. Several of these have been preserved for 
their historical interest, and perhaps because their intrinsic 
value was comparatively small. One of the finest, known as 
the Phcenix jewel (Plate XIX, 6), was bequeathed to the 
British Museum by Sir Hans Sloane in 1753. Its centre 
is filled with a bust of the Queen cut from the gold medal 
of 1574, known as the Phcenix badge, which bears on the 
reverse the device of a phoenix in flames. It is enclosed in a 
wreath of red, white and Tudor roses, in translucent red and 
opaque white enamel, which with the leaves of translucent 
green are attached to the ground by stalks enamelled light 

A beautiful Armada jewel in the Pierpont Morgan collec- 
tion 1 (Plate A, 4 and 6) shews on the one side a bust of the 

1 Williamson, Catalogue of the Miniatures in the Collection of J. P. Morgan, Vol. I, 


Queen from the Personal or Garter Medal of 1582, mounted 
on a ground of deep translucent blue enamel, with the legend: 
" Eiizabetha D.G. Ang. Fra. et Hib. Regina." Behind is a 
miniature of the Queen by Hilliard, dated 1580, covered with 
a lid enamelled on the outside with an ark and the motto 
" Saevas tranquilla per undas " (from the " Naval Award 
Medal" of 1588), and on the inside with a Tudor rose and 
the motto which appears on the reverse of the Phoenix badge: 
" Hei mihi quod tanta virtus perfusa decor e non habet eternos 
mmolata dies." The whole jewel is bordered at a little 
distance by enamelled strapwork in a delicate design, set, like 
so much of the work of this date, with diamonds and rubies. 
Another example of this type, now in the Poldi Pezzoli 
Museum at Milan 1 (Plate XIX, 7), is a mother-of-pearl 
medallion carved in low relief with the Ark, in a design 
similar to that of the pendant just mentioned, surrounded by 
the same inscription in gold on white enamel : " Saevas tran- 
quilla per undas." The back of the jewel completes the 
simile: 'Per tot discrimina rerum" The jewel is edged 
with table cut rubies, with the rim enamelled red, white and 
green. The front is hinged, and shews the jewel to have 
been a miniature case. Another jewel which seems to pertain 
to this time was given to the Queen on New Year's Day, 
1590: "a Jewel of Aggett Lyke an Arke slightly garnished 
with golde, wth a compartment ouer it of Sparks of Dyamonds, 
and a perle pendant flatt." 2 

At the same time many jewels were inscribed with mottoes. 
In 1585-6 Elizabeth received an armlet made of letters linked 

1 Clifford Smith, Jewellery, P- 256. 2 B.M. Add. MS., 5751. 



together to form the words of her personal motto, Semper 
Eadem, clasped with her Phoenix badge. More often the 
motto expressed the devotion or admiration of the giver. In 
the following year Sir Christopher Heydon gave her fifteen 
buttons of enamelled gold set with letters of seed pearl in the 
inscription Tu decus omne tuis, 1 and in 158 1-2 2 Anjou gave 
her a "shackle" of gold engraved with the words Serviet eternum 
dulds quern to^tet Eliza, A necklace is also recorded 3 with 
'this word DURABO of smale perle, and knotts of trew loves." 

Posies continued to be inscribed within the shanks of 
rings. A few were still written in French, but the greater 
number were in English. Such inscriptions as"A/y wille 
were" and " Cest mon plaisir" are found, but the majority 
have a religious or moral significance, for instance Espoir en 
Dieu ; Quant Dieu plaira melior sera, and the gloomy Observe 
wedlocke : memento mori. Such rings were often plain hoops, 
like a modern wedding ring, but jewelled and gimmel rings 
were commonly used for marriage rings. The wedding ring 
of Sir Thomas Gresham (Plate XX, 3) is of this form, 
inscribed Quod Deus coniunxit Homo non separet. 

It is sometimes difficult to distinguish emblematic designs, 
generally of a naturalistic kind, from the flower and animal 
patterns of Elizabethan jewellery. Among the Queen's New 
Year gifts we find a jewel ornamented with a lily, a butterfly, 
and a sea crab among sprays of jewelled mother-of-pearl roses, 4 
and another with a garland of golden leaves and walnuts with 
a hanging opal butterfly; 6 while included in her wardrobe list 

1 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, ibid., II, 499. 2 Ibid., II, pp. i, 258. 

s Ibid., II, p. i. 4 Ibid., II, p. 79. 6 III, p. 512. 


for I6OO 1 are "a fearne braunche, having therein a lyzard a 
lady-cow and a snaile " ; and a jewel "with a flie and a spider 
in it upon a rose." In the twentieth year of her reign 2 she 
was presented with a " short necklace of small pearls with 
pendants shaped as fishes, birds, knots and flies." A certain 
number of her jewels were purely floral in design, such as a 
hawthorn branch and a bunch of flowers, 2 while others were 

in the shape of animals alone, such as a jewel of gold in the 
shape of a frog, and " a Jewell being a white hare of Mother 
of pearle having two Rubyes, thone behinde the other before 
in the brest and an Emeralde in the forehead sitting upon a 
Storke of gold. 3 Others, again, recall the hybrid monsters 
familiar in Italian and South German pendants of the time, 
such as the " flower of golde being a man monster with a 
winding Tayle . . . the bodie being Mother of Perle," 4 and 
one of the Queen's New Year Gifts in 1572-3 : 5 " A juell of 
golde, being a fish called the bull of the sea, fully garnished 
with dyamonds and rubyes on th'one syde, and the other syde 
having a fynne likewise garnished, and a man kneeling upon 
the same, his bodye and hedd garnished with small dyamonds 
and rubyes," which recalls the designs of Erasmus Hornick 
of Nuremberg. Nicholas Bacon, in his portrait in the 
National Portrait Gallery, wears a large gold pendant 
(possibly a whistle) in the shape of a grotesque animal, 
apparently a chameleon, the body of which is sparsely set 
with rubies and sapphires. 

1 B.M., Add. MS., 5751. 2 B.M., Stove MS., 557. 

3 B.M., MS., Royal Append., 68. 4 Ibid. 

~ a Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, 66. 


Besides these, many pendants were made in the shape of 
birds, a type commonly found in Spain. In 1577 the Queen 
was given a jewel in the form of a bird of paradise, in the 
following year one " wherein is a parret hanging," and in 
1581, one "like a peacock." A portrait of the Queen in the 
National Portrait Gallery depicts her wearing a beautiful 
pendant in the shape of a bird. 

A favourite design for Elizabethan pendants was a ship, a 
form favoured by Italian jewellers at a rather earlier date. In 
the Royal inventories several are mentioned, 1 among them 
"A fayre Jewell of golde, being a shippe borde, therein a 
personage standing, and under the ship a fayre emerald, the 
same shipp garnished with smale dyamonds and rubyes, and 
foure meane perles pendant. 2 

A pendant of this type, supposed to represent the Golden 
Hind, was given to Elizabeth by Sir Francis Drake, and by 
her presented to Lord Hunsdon. (Plate A, 5.) He be- 
queathed it to his wife and daughter with the other Hunsdon 
heirlooms, " soe longe as the conscience of my heires shall 
have grace and honestie to perform my will, for that I esteeme 
theme right jeweles and monumentes worthie to be kept for 
their beautie, rareness, and that for monie they are not to be 
matched nor the like yet knowen to be found in this realme." 
They are now preserved at Berkeley Castle. The ship 
jewel has a hull of ebony, set with a table diamond ; the 
mast and rigging are most delicately executed in gold, 
ornamented with opaque enamel in blue, white, green, and 

1 Nichols, op. cit., II, 66. 2 Ibid., II, 397. 

3 Clifford Smith, Jewellery, p. 218. 


black, and set with seed pearls ; below hangs a small boat 
enamelled blue. In the ship sits Victory blowing a horn, 
with Cupid behind her crowning her with a wreath. Mr. 
Clifford Smith informs me that a very similar pendant is 
worn by one of the pages to Robert Dudley, Earl of 
Leicester, in a picture hanging on the stairs at Longleat. 
The ship design is also represented on a pendant in 
the London Museum collection of early XVII century 
jewels. 1 

The Renaissance interest in classical gems, and the revival 
of the art of gem-cutting, led to many jewels, notably pendants 
and enseignes, being set with cameos, either portraits or 
mythological subjects. The vogue for them was such that 
imitations were produced: the 1586 inventory of the jewels 
of Mary Queen of Scots, 2 records various brooches and rings 
set with "counterfeit agates." Several portrait cameos of 
Elizabeth exist, apparently of English fabrication, but many 
of them have lost their original settings. The Wild jewel 
(the property of Miss Wild, to whose ancestress Elizabeth gave 
it as a christening present), which is exhibited at the Victoria 
and Albert Museum, has in its centre a small turquoise cameo 
of the Queen surrounded by a border of open enamelled 
scrollwork set with rubies and pointed diamonds, with pearls 
hanging below. (Plate XIX, 10.) Another jewel in the 
British Museum (Plate XIX, i) shews a cameo of Elizabeth 

1 No. 5, 14205. 

2 Bannatyne Club, Inventaires de Marie Rogne cTEscosse, pp. 88 and 120. The fine 
portrait cameo of her in cornelian, in abetting of jewelled and enamelled gold, given by 
her to the Duke of Norfolk on their betrothal, and now belonging to the Duke of Portland, 
is almost certainly of French workmanship. 


surrounded by a simple pierced border of gold, enamelled 
and set with garnets. This recalls the Barbor pendant in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum (Plate XIX, 4), which is said 
to have been made to commemorate the deliverance of 
William Barbor from the flames of Smithfield through the 
accession of Elizabeth. The small cameo portrait of the 
Queen is surrounded by a bevelled enamelled setting, with an 
outer border set with square stones at regular intervals, 
surmounted by a crown. Below hangs a bunch of small 
pearls like a cluster of grapes, a fancy also met with in the 
magnificent Elizabethan jewel, containing a portrait of the 
Queen by Hilliard, which once belonged to Sir Francis 
Drake, and is now in the possession of Sir Francis Fuller- 
Eliott-Drake. (Plate A, 5.) A portrait of the great navigator 
by Zucchero, in the same collection, depicts him wearing 
it suspended from his neck by a red and gold cord. It is set 
with a fine cameo of Renaissance workmanship, with a 
classical head in a white layer behind the head of a negro in 
the upper dark stratum. The border is of enamelled gold 
set with rubies and diamonds. Its design of scrolls and 
flowers differs alike from the regular scrolling borders of 
French work, and from the more flamboyant German style, 
and is almost certainly of English workmanship. Behind 
the cameo is a miniature of Elizabeth by Hilliard, dated 
1575. Such cameos are included in the inventory of the 
stock of John Mabbe, a goldsmith, in 1576. In that year 
a law was passed forbidding anyone to sell goldsmiths' work 
made of gold of less than 22 carats, but special permission 
was granted to him to sell the jewels which he had in stock at 



the time, and the document recording this l gives a list of the 
jewels in his shop. These included "a brouche of gold lyke 
a Mores-head, the ground being Mother of pearl," "a broache 
with a very fayr Agott like a Blackamore enamelled all white 
about the said agott," and " a Jewell with an Agott having 
a woman cut on it like a More." 

The survival of the fashion for pictorial jewellery, and its 
gradual modification in favour of single figures or simple 
groups, is also seen in the list of his stock. It included 
ornaments decorated with Joshua and Caleb (with ruby 
grapes), Fama Perennis, Lucretia, Charitas, Prudentia, 
Phcebus and Daphne, Narcissus, Mars, Venus and Cupid, 
the worshipping of the brazen serpent, the dream of Jacob, 
the " Story of young Tobias," Neptune, " a Roman burning 
his hand in fire," a mermaid, and the passage of the Children 
of Israel through the Red Sea. The religious jewellery 
which had a vogue under Mary Tudor is further repre- 
sented by "a jewel representing God with all Tokens of 
Sovereygntie." But the passing of the mediaeval tradition 
changed even the jewels consecrated by the old Church : 
Mary Queen of Scots owned an Agnus Dei " de crystal 
de roche, ayant au dedans un Neptune." 2 

Elizabethan jewels offer less variety of technique than of 
design. The mediaeval stores of precious stones were not 
yet exhausted, and the riches of the New World were 
beginning to fill the marts of Europe. New methods of 
cutting had not as yet made much advance : gems were 

1 Rymer, Fcedera, XV, 757. 

2 Texier, Dictionnaire cTOrfevrerie Chretienne, p. 46, s.v., Agnus Dei. 


commonly table cut, and backed with foil to give them depth 
of colour and brilliance. A few references to paste gems 
may be found : Mary Queen of Scots, for instance, owned 
several ornaments of "verre vert." At this time quartz 
crystals found in the Bristol limestone, at H arrogate, and in 
the iron mines of Cornwall, were set and used instead of 
diamonds by ostentatious people of the middle classes. 
Under the name of " Bristows " various references to them 
may be found in contemporary literature. 1 The progress 
made in gem engraving has already been mentioned. Mother- 
of-pearl continued to be worked into jewels. It was usually 
engraved as it is on the Ark jewel in Milan. (Plate XIX, 7.) 
A remarkable Elizabethan ring belonging to the Earl of 
Home (Plate XIX, 2, 3) has the body of the ring made of 
mother-of-pearl, each shoulder being ornamented with a line 
of rubies set in gold. The bezel is formed of an oval 
medallion with the cypher E. R. in relief, the E. being of 
diamonds and the R. of blue enamel, which opens to disclose 
a recess in the mother-of-pearl containing an exquisite little 
portrait bust in enamelled gold, perhaps of Anne Boleyn, 
with a small diamond set as a brooch. Within the inner 
surface of the lid is a similar profile bust of Queen Elizabeth, 
with a ruby brooch. Within the ring at the back of the 
bezel is an oval plate of gold, with an earl's coronet and a 
phoenix in flames executed in translucent enamel. 2 The 1586 

1 Imitation diamonds were used earlier. Among the jewels of Henry IV was a brooch 
set with a ruby, three sapphires, three clusters of pearls and three " diamantz contrifaitz." 

1 The phoenix is here probably not as the badge of Elizabeth, but as the crest of 
Edward Seymour, created Earl of Hertford in 1559, so that the ring may be dated 
between that year and his fall from the Queen's favour after his marriage with Lady 
Catharine Grey. 


inventory of the jewels of Mary Queen of Scots l includes 
"a ring made of the Mother of Pearle with a Blue Saphir." 
Baroque pearls, on the other hand, were less commonly used 
in England than on the Continent. It is possible, however, 
that " Mother-of- Pearl " is used in the inventories for both 
substances. Whistles in Elizabeth's inventory of isSy 2 
''being Cleopatra the queene of gold ennamoled white and 
the lower part of mother of pearle " and "being a dolphin of 
mother of pearle ; a man sitting on the back of the dolphin 
blowing a trumpet " certainly recall pendants set with baroque 
pearls in the style of Erasmus Hornick. 

Very few ornaments were made depending for their effect 
on gems alone. The rubies, opals and diamonds which 
decorated much Elizabethan jewellery, depended on the 
translucent red and black enamel used for their settings for 
effect. One of the few surviving jewels of this kind, the Star 
Enseigne that once belonged to Sir Francis Drake (Plate 
A, 2), is evidence of this. 

Naturalistic designs human, animal or floral were 
usually treated in enamel en ronde bosse in opaque and trans- 
lucent colours. The variety and lustre of the enamels, and 
the deep colour of the foiled table-cut stones, give an effect of 
great richness. Larger plane surfaces were usually treated in 
champleve" enamel, either in black or red, relieved by the 
design left in the golden field, or in several colours with the 
gold outlining their compartments. Of the first kind of 
decoration a good example is the Campion pendant (Plate 
XXIV, 2 and 4), which shews a leafy arabesque in black. The 

1 BM., Stome MS., 560. 2 B.M., MS., Royal Append., 68. 



case of a miniature of Sir Walter Raleigh, belonging to the 
Duke of Rutland, 1 illustrates the second type of decoration. It 
is enamelled in a conventional pattern of flowers in green on 
a black ground. In the centre is a heart-shaped ornament 
enclosing a lozenge, over which is a W., while beneath 
appears the monogram E.R., all executed in the translucent 
green enamel, the edges and other details being picked out in 
black. This style of decoration is more rarely executed in a 
single colour. A case, lent by Queen Victoria to the same 
exhibition, has its back and front covered alike with a fine 
geometric pattern formed of silver cloisons on a black enamel 

Towards the end of the century enamel work shews 
stronger foreign influences. Daniel Mignot, of Augsburg, 
began publishing his engravings of designs for jewels about 
1590, and several enamels of the end of the century are 
decorated in his style. (Plate XX, i, 2.) They may have 
been made in England by foreign workmen, but since they 
are usually the settings of miniatures by English artists it is 
reasonable to consider them with English work. The in- 
fluence of foreign designs is also evident in such delicate 
scrolling gold-work as that of the seal of Alexander Seton, 
Earl of Dunfermline. (Plate XX, 4.) 

The "backwork on crystal" found in Continental work 2 
may perhaps be recognized in the fan handle mentioned in 
the 1600 inventory of Elizabeth's jewels 3 "of Christall gar- 

1 Shewn at the Exhibition of European Enamels, Burlington Fine Arts Club, 1897. 
Catalogue, Plate LXVIII. 

2 See Labarte, Histoires des Arts Industrials, II, p. 136. 
B.M., Stawe MS., 551. 


nished wt golde wt a devise under the cristall painted." 
Signets were often made of a crystal engraved with the 
achievement, with the tinctures painted at the back. 1 

During this period the magical aspect of jewellery was 
not forgotten, though the practice of inscribing jewels with 
religious and prophylactic legends died out after the Reforma- 
tion. The belief in the virtues of precious stones was, 
however, as strong as ever. Toadstones were in common 
use, and jade and other substances were imported from India 
and the East, and worn to cure and to avert disease. A 
pendant set with a fragment of the horn of a narwhal, 
believed to be that of a unicorn, set in gold with a central 
boss enamelled in strapwork, has long been in the possession 
of the family of Campion, of Danny, and has lately been 
presented by Lieut. -Col. W. R. Campion, M.P., to the Victoria 
and Albert Museum. 2 (Plate XXIV, 2 and 4.) Such a jewel 
is mentioned in the will of Sir Nathaniel Bacon, of Stiffkey, 3 
made in 1614, which directs that each of his daughters 
" may challenge the use thereof when needs require." 

Elizabethan jewels were not only elaborate in form and 
rich in decoration, but were profuse in number. Elizabeth 
inherited great treasures and a love of displaying them, and 
vastly increased her store. " A pale Roman nose," says 
Walpole, " a head of hair loaded with crowns and powdered 
with diamonds, a vast ruff, a vaster fardingale, a bushel of 
pearls, are features by which everybody knows at once the 

1 See the signet ring of Mary Queen of Scots in the British Museum. 

2 Exhibited by Mr. Clifford Smith to the Society of Antiquaries, June, 1914. 

3 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, Elizabeth, and James I, Addenda 1580-1625, 
P- 543- 


pictures of Queen Elizabeth," which he further compared to 
representations of "an Indian idol, totally composed of hands 
and necklaces." The Queen not only dazzled her courtiers 
with jewelled coronets, girdles, necklaces, rings, and pendants 
which were worn pinned to the ruff, bodice, and sleeves- 
but her entire dress. 

" All above besprinkled was throughout 

With golden aygulets that glistened bright." l 

That these aiguillettes or aglets were often insecurely fastened 
may be inferred from the number of those lost " from her 
Majesty's back." 

Such ornaments were usually enamelled and jewelled : in 
1576-7 she was given many "of golde, whereof 3 dozen 
being men and 3 dosen fyshes, and 3 dosen being acorns." 
Her wardrobe list for i6oo 4 records buttons like roses, 
pierced hearts, lizards, pansies, " wt shells of mother of 
pearle," "called Peascoddes and Trueloves," and "pomaunder 
buttons like acorns wt seede pearle." 

The profusion of irrelevant ornament worn in women's 
hair, which was dressed high in front, roused the ire of Philip 
Stubbes. In his Anatomic of Abuses, in 1583, he writes 
that " at their hair, thus wreathed and crested, are hanged 
bugles, ouches, rings, gold, silver, glasses, and such other 
childish gewgaws." Jewelled "bodkins" were stuck in the 
hair or hatband : many are recorded in the lists of Queen 
Elizabeth's New Year Gifts, between 1559 and 1590, 

1 Spenser, Faery Queen, II, 316. 

2 Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, IV, pp. 264 and 416. 
8 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, p. 52. 

4 Ibid., Ill, p. 512. 


decorated with varied devices, such as mother-of-pearl birds, 
a cradle, a wreathed heart, a white rose, 1 a plough, a covey, 2 
and a ship. 3 

Mary Queen of Scots had not the acquisitive capacity of 
Elizabeth, and her jewels, though splendid, hardly equalled 
her rival's in magnificence. She followed French fashions, 
and her jewels appear to have been for the most part of 
French workmanship : there is a marked absence of the 
nawett of design to be found in the recorded English 
work. 4 

Towards the end of the XVI century a fashion arose 
of wearing one or more rings slung on a chain or cord, or 
sometimes fixed to a pin, a fashion which lasted till the latter 
part of the XVII century. The rings in the inventories 
of Mary Queen of Scots are divided into " bagues a mectre 
aux doitz " and " bagues a pandre." A portrait of Sir Henry 
Lee (1530-1611) by Sir Anthonis Mor, at Ditchley, 5 shews 
him wearing round his neck a red cord attached to a ring on 
the thumb of his left hand, and two other red cords, also with 
finger-rings tied to them, round his arm. It has been 
suggested that rings thus worn are either badges of office 
or of royal favour, or betrothal rings, but in many cases 
they seem to have been merely ornamental. 

Many necklaces and chains were worn, some close to 
the throat, some falling to the point of the jewelled stomacher, 

1 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, p. 307. 

2 Ibid., II, p. 419. 3 Ibid., Ill, p. 10. 

4 See A. Lang, Portraits and Jewels of Mary Queen of Scots. 

5 Lent by Viscount Dillon to the Oxford Exhibition of Historical Portraits, 1904, 
No. 99. 


and some looped all round the top of the sleeves and across 
the front of the bodice. Some of these were jewelled chains 
(see Plate XXI), but the greater number were strings of 
pearls in single or multiple ply. 

It was the age of pearls, either used alone or set with 
other gems. They were worn on every conceivable jewel, 
threaded through the hair, forming the belt, studding the 
tours or bordures de tourel the framework on which was 
expanded the prodigious winged collar then in fashion- 
and strewn over the whole dress. This abundance of 
pearls is not confined to the portraits of Elizabeth, but 
is also found in those of many of her contemporaries. 

The size and profusion of these pearls at first arouse 
some suspicion, for false pearls began to be fabricated in 
France in the reign of Henry IV; 1 but the inventories 
shew that Mary Tudor, Elizabeth, and Mary Queen of Scots 
had many " belts, laces, partlets, and Abillements " of Oriental 

The fashion for pomanders reached its zenith in the reign 
of Elizabeth. Lord Bacon wrote 2 of the use of pomander 
" for drying of rheums, comforting of the heart, and pro- 
voking of sleep," while this harmless liking for sweet 
perfumes aroused the anger of Philip Stubbes. 3 

At this time, necklaces, girdles, and other ornaments, 4 

1 W. Jones, Precious Stones, p. 268. 

2 Quoted A rchceological Journal, XXXI, 1874, P- 337- 3 Anatomic of Abuses. 

4 A portrait of this time of Jane Heckington, Mrs. Cecil, at Hatfield (Historical 
Portraits Exhibition, 1866, No. 248), shews her with a walking-stick with a pomander 
head. It is interesting to recall in this connection that the gold-headed canes of the 
XVIII century doctors contained a sponge soaked in aromatic vinegar in their globular 



were made of beads and medallions of pomander encased in 
pierced gold. Mary Queen of Scots in I566 1 had two 
complete " accoustrements de senteurs" one comprising ' tour, 
aureilles, gorgerin, cottouere et saincture" and the other " tour, 
aureillettes , cottouere, carcan, saincture, et patenostres" Be- 
sides these she had various bracelets and rosaries of the same 
type, and " un petitte chesne cTor ou il y a atache 1 au bout une 
poire cfor pleine de parfum garnye de petittes turquoyses et 
grenatz" At Fotheringay on the day of her execution, the 
Queen 2 "had apparelled herself in borrowed hair, about her 
neck a pomander chain, and an Agnus Dei hanging at a 
black riband." 

The lists of the New Year Gifts of her rival mention 
several pomanders, 3 and more numerous still are the references 
to chains of pomander beads, 4 combined with amber, pearls, 
coral and cameos. 

Many other ornaments in which pomanders were intro- 
duced are mentioned in the inventories of Elizabeth. In 
1 572-3 5 she received "a carkanet, upper and nether habilli- 
ment of christalles, and small pomounders slightly garnished 
with golde," and in the following year 6 "one peyre of brace- 
letts of pomander and agathe hedds," and " a fayre gyrdle of 
pomaunder and seede perle." The great inventory of her 
wardrobe made in i6oo 7 records a fan handle of crystal tipped 
with pomander. 

1 Ban natyne Club. Inventories de Marie Stouart Royne cTEscosse. 

2 Gunton, Peterborough. 

3 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, I, p. 108; II, pp. 53, 255, and B.M. MS., Royal 
Append., 68. 

4 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, pp. 388, 397, 400, 499, 526. 

5 Ibid., \, p. 324. 6 Ibid., II, p. 380. 7 B.M., Stawe MS., 537. 


Several new forms of jewels were introduced in the 
Elizabethan age. Jewelled fan-handles have already been 
mentioned ; several are enumerated in the royal inventories. 
More important is the introduction of the portable watch in 
an ornamental case. 1 

The precursor of the watch, the portable sundial, was 
occasionally treated as a jewel. Among the designs of Hans 
Holbein is one for a pendant cylindrical calendar and dial. 
The ring-dials of the period were also occasionally jewelled. 
In 1578-9 the Earl of Russell gave Queen Elizabeth 2 a 
jewelled gold ring " called a parmadas," with a dial in the 
back. Watches were first made in Nuremberg after the 
invention of the mainspring there early in the XVI century, 
and were unknown in England before its third and fourth 
decade. One of the earliest references occurs in an inventory 
of the jewels given to Catherine Howard by Henry VIII in 
1 54 1, 3 which records three " Tabletts " of gold "wherein is a 
clocke," and " one pomaunder of gold wherein is a clocke." 
There are few detailed descriptions of watches earlier than the 
Elizabethan inventories, which record "clocks" of every 
conceivable shape. The inventory of Queen Elizabeth's jewels, 
made in 1600, includes a section devoted to her watches. 4 
One seems from its design to have had some reference to 
the friendship between Elizabeth and the Earl of Leicester. 
Among other jewelled watches recorded in the inventory are 
examples "wrought like dayses and paunseys" with a hanging 
acorn ; with a horse bearing a crowned globe ; with one side 

1 See F. Britten, Old Clocks and Watches and their Makers, 2nd edition. 

2 Nichols, Progresses of Elizabeth, II, p. 70. 

3 B.M., Stowe MS., 559. 4 Britten, op. cit., p. 123. 


" being agate with a mouse on the toppe and heddes round 
about it" ; enamelled with the History of Time ; with a frog 
on one side and a pomegranate on the other, and an egg- 
shaped one made of agate. Besides these there were two 
"flowers" enclosing watches, one set with emeralds and 
enamelled with "three antique women." Over twenty watches 
are recorded in this inventory alone. The " Eraser Tytler " 
picture of Mary Queen of Scots, in the National Portrait 
Gallery, depicts her as wearing two watches, one hanging from 
a rich chain and the other from the end of the jewelled belt, 
and several are described in the lists of her jewels. 

At this time, marked by the rise of the English school of 
miniaturists, many jewels were made to contain a miniature. 
The Armada jewel (Plate 64 and 6) and the Drake pendant 
(Plate B 5) both contain miniatures of the Queen by Hilliard. 
Miniature cases or "picture-boxes" were worn on chains 
round the neck, affixed to the girdle or pinned to the bodice. 
A fine example containing a portrait of the Queen is now 
in the Victoria and Albert Museum. (Plate XX, i, 2.) 
The miniature is covered by a pierced lid set with rubies in a 
scrolled setting, while the back is enamelled with a rich design 
of scrolls, flowers, and dolphins in the style of Daniel Mignot. 
Another in the royal collection (Plate A, 3) is of openwork 
in enamelled gold, set with diamonds and rubies. Sometimes 
the locket contained a mirror ; one such in the Waddesdon 
Bequest (Plate XX, 6) has its two faces similarly treated. 
The black enamel ground is decorated with golden scrolls ; 
in the centre is a shield-shaped panel, with a rosette in trans- 
lucent blue and green, from which radiate eight ornamental 


bars in white, with gold details. The edge is treated in white 
enamel, with alternate blue and green spots. 

Elizabethan jewels are the most national of all English 
gold-work, and have the defects of their qualities. The 
foreign craftsmen of the early English Renaissance had been 
succeeded by a generation of English goldsmiths, and men 
like Dericke Anthony, Affabel Partridge, Peter Trendar, 
Nicholas Herrick, Hugh Kayle, and Sir Richard Martin, 1 
were able to answer every demand made by a court and 
country that had suddenly become rich. 

Too often the design of their jewels in its very elaboration 
betrays a half-educated taste. The large rhythm of great art 
may be expressed in the smallest of jewels ; but the English 
were apt to see magnificence in profusion rather than in 
perfection. Naive design and childish fancy, wrought in 
work of considerable technical skill in materials of real beauty, 
are not without their charm ; but it is not the charm of great 
art. With the end of the reign of Elizabeth the Renaissance 
art of gold-work reached maturity. Growing French influ- 
ence and a later stage of development in England itself 
brought a stronger sense of dignity and proportion. Variety 
of design might diminish, magnificence of array might be 
reduced, yet thoughtful unity of conception, ordered regularity 
of design, and a kind of exquisite reasonableness make the 
jewels of the later Renaissance richer in beauty and in grace 
than those of the XVI century. 

1 Clifford Smith, Jewellery, p. 220. 



ENGLISH XVI century architecture still shared in 
the Gothic traditions of structure and proportion, 
though its decoration was in the style of the Renais- 
sance. The minor arts were more advanced because less 
fundamental, but even decorative survivals of the mediaeval 
tradition in design, technique and subject may be found up 
to the end of the Elizabethan age. The dawn of the new 
century and the accession of the Stuart dynasty approxi- 
mately mark the end of these survivals, which came sooner 
in the smaller and less national arts than in the mistress art 
of architecture. 

The mediaeval unity of goldsmiths' work and jewellery 
had been gradually weakened in the XVI century, and 
with the new century a distinction began to be drawn between 
jewellery and enamel work. This happened gradually and 
slowly. Improvements in the faceting of gems and a 
growing desire for lightness of effect favoured the introduc- 
tion of slighter settings, thus restricting the field of enamelled 
work, which was often confined to the back of the jewel. 

In the course of the XVII century interest began to 
be concentrated on gems and their cutting. With the inven- 
tion of true rose cutting about 1641-3, and the opening up 



of the diamond fields of Golconda, the diamond rose to its 
present position of pre-eminence. Till the end of the 
XVI century the customary method of faceting stones 
was table-cutting, or simple faceting, while diamonds were 
generally used in the natural form of a double pyramid. 
This added so little to their brilliancy that it was usual to 
foil the stones, that is to back them with thin sheets of 
burnished metal or with dark paint. It is because of the 
effect of these foils that diamonds are always painted nearly 
black in pictures of the time. At the end of the XVI 
century an imperfect method of rose-cutting was invented, 
and in the list of diamonds pawned by the King to John 
Spilman in i6i^ 1 with small drawings of the stones one 
is represented that seems to shew some attempt at brilliant 
cutting described as " cutt like the quarre of a glass windo " 
-while two other drop-shaped stones are apparently rose cut. 
Other inventories also record elaborately faceted gems. A 
diamond-set hatband among the presents taken on the 
Spanish Embassy in i623 2 was decorated with "twenty 
faire dymonds sett in Buttons of Goulde in manner 
of Spanish worke, whereof eight are four-square Table 
Dyamonds, twoe large six-square Table Dyamonds, two 
fower square Table Dyamonds cut with Fawcetts, two large 
poynted Dyamonds, one faire Hart Dyamond and three 
triangle Dyamonds." These seem all to have been cut more 
or less table-fashion ; but rose cutting that is the cutting of 
the convex top of a half crystal into a few facets, leaving the 
base flat was also known ; in George Heriot's bill to Anne 

1 Copy, B.M., StmveMS., 560. 2 Rymer, Faedera, XVII, p. 509. 


of Denmark, of the 2ist December, 1604,* a ring is described 
"with one diamond in the toppe, cut in form of a rosse," 
and the Lyte jewel (Plate XXIII, 1-3) is set with four roses. 

True rose cutting (invented by Dutch lapidaries under 
the encouragement of Cardinal Mazarin, soon after 1640) 
led to the use of unfoiled gems, and in 1647 Mrs. Sherard 
writes to Ralph Verney 2 of her " littal hanging stones without 
foyles." At the end of the XVII century the Venetian, 
Vincenzo Peruzzi, invented brilliant cutting, which, with 
certain modifications and improvements, is used at the present 

The most important source of our knowledge of Jacobean 
jewels, of which the English origin cannot be disputed, is the 
stock of a jeweller found when a house was pulled down 
between St. Paul's and the Post Office in 191 2. 3 It can 
be dated between 1610 and 1620. In it the decline of the 
stately enamelled jewels of the Renaissance can be traced in 
the predominance of swinging faceted stones in light settings. 
The diamonds are nearly all table cut, but many of the 
coloured stones are faceted briolettes. A few show a very 
flat rose cutting. Several pendants are formed of coloured 
stones cut as briolettes and set hanging chandelier-wise from a 
central ornament in white enamel. Remarkably fine cutting 
is shown in a bracelet formed of faceted rings of amethyst, 
joined with enamel links. (Plate XXI, 9.) A considerable 
number of quadrangular faceted gems are used, either set as 
the centre of small enamelled flowers (Plate XXI, 2 and 8) 

1 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic. * Verney Memoirs, I, p. 177. 

3 Now in the London Museum and the British Museum. 






or in simple designs, such as cross pendants. A few large 
cabochon gems are simply mounted with a ring as pendants, 
and small cabochons are used in clusters on an enamelled 

The progress of gem engraving and the fashion for 
cameos is well illustrated. The collection includes ancient, 
mediaeval and Renaissance gems : a pear-shaped antique 
cameo with a cloisonne enamel back and a large pearl pen- 
dant, a locket in bloodstone with heads of Christ and the 
Virgin in a frame enamelled with the emblems of the Passion, 
glass cameos of St. George and the Dragon and the Scourg- 
ing of Christ, and a cameo of the fable of the dog and his 
shadow. Carved jewels are represented by hanging bunches 
of emerald and amethyst grapes (Plate XXI, 4), by the agate 
plaques of a hanging scent-bottle (Plate XXI, 5), and by 
little figures in the round of a parrot in chrysoprase and a 
squirrel in cornelian. 

Artistically the chains are the most important of the 
jewels. Those of linked flowers enamelled white with 
emerald and diamond centres, alone or alternating with 
square amethysts, oblong emeralds, ovals of lapis lazuli in 
settings of white enamel, or vine leaves of translucent green ; 
those formed of enamelled bows linked with interlaced rings, 
and that of white and gold Tudor roses linked with green 
leaves, are worthy of the best traditions of the Renaissance. 
None the less, with rare exceptions the jewels depend not 
upon delicacy of workmanship and fantasy of design but upon 
the juxtaposition of precious stones. The influence of great 

artists, such as Holbein, no longer impaired the gem-setting 


jeweller, and in this collection, probably the stock of a trades- 
man of the second rank, there are traces of that pettiness of 
design and love of mere sparkle which too often spoil English 
jewellery. The design and execution of the enamel settings 
are rarely of the first quality, and it is significant that there 
are as many as twelve copies of the same jewel. Yet the 
collection is of great interest since it is wholly English. There 
are hardly any traces of foreign influence to be observed, 
except in the presence of a minute figure of a child in croci- 
dolite of Mexican workmanship and of several objects in jade 
and soapstone to attest to the geographical advances of the 


The reign of Elizabeth had witnessed the dominance of 
native jewellers at the English Court, and this was not 
threatened in the first years of James I. George Heriot, 
of Edinburgh, followed James to London, and worked at 
the Court with William Herrick, John Spilman, Philip 
Jacobson, John Acton, and John Williams. Anne of 
Denmark received ^36,000 worth of personal ornaments 
made by Sir William Herrick, uncle of the poet, and the 
lists of jewels in her bills and inventories shew that many 
Elizabethan styles survived. They include a ship (a favourite 
Elizabethan subject), an A, a heart entwined by a serpent, 
a flower de luce, Moors' heads, "piersed eye and hart," a frog, 
a C, an anchor, an S two jewels often represented in her 
portraits honeysuckle, drums, a "jolly flower," a horn of 
abundance, a burning heart, a scallop shell, a parrot, a corselet 
(a subject found in the designs of Paul Birckenhultz), a leaf, 
and a bayleaf with a lizard upon it. The Elizabethan fancy 


for watches of strange forms was modified into a graceful 
fashion for those made in the shape of a fruit, a flower, or 
a shell. One in the British Museum, made by Edward 
Bysse about 1610, is in the shape of a fritillary, with silver 
petals chequered in niello : one by Richard Masterson, 1 also 
of silver, is shaped like a cockle shell, and one by John 
Willowe, of Fleet Street (1630-40), in the British Museum, 
is in the form of a scallop shell. The usual shape of the 
early XVII century watch-case is an elongated hexagon ; 
some of the most beautiful were made in translucent stone. 
The jeweller's stock in the London Museum includes such 
a watch cut out of a block of emerald with the dial enamelled 
in green. More common are cases of faceted crystal, either 
clasped together with ornaments of enamelled gold, like one 
in the British Museum, made by Nouwen in 1609, or set in 
rims of chased and engraved metal. Occasionally the crystal 
itself was decorated with ''back-work." A watch of about 
1620 in the Pierpoint Morgan Collection, 2 presented by 
James I to the first Lord Brooke, has the front of the case 
decorated with a miniature of James I in a border of table- 
cut rubies, and the back with the royal achievement in red and 
gold on black vellum within a border of emeralds. The sides 
are of clear rock crystal, behind which are figures of the 
Virtues in panels longitudinally divided by bands of finely 
wrought gold across the crystal, each set with precious stones. 
The principal jewellers at James's Court were English, 
but foreign craftsmen were also employed. A Dutchman, 

1 Clockmaker's Collection, Guildhall Museum, No. 230. 

2 Williamson, Catalogue of Watches in the Collection of J. P. Morgan, No. 131, p. 129, 
Plate LX. 


Arnold Lulls, has left a book of designs for jewels planned 
for Anne of Denmark, which is now in the Victoria and 
Albert Museum. His drawings are of great minuteness and 
delicacy, and are more thoughtful in design than the jewels of 
the London Museum collection. (Plate XXI I.) Strapwork 
and gracefully floriated scrolls appear on the setting of several 
gems. A splendid pendant is designed with a great emerald 
in the centre, within a circle of table-cut rubies, entwined with 
snakes of white enamel, and hung with three pendant pearls. 
Three designs for ear-rings shew large pear-shaped cabochon 
emerald pendants hanging from rings in the form of a snake. 
Aigrettes jewels which supported a feather or imitated it 
in form are represented in several designs. One large one 
is made of a flat plate of gold set with many diamonds and a 
large square ruby on a ground of translucent ckamplevd 
enamel in red, green, and white. Two other aigrettes recall 
feathers in their curves, and another has vertical rays ascending 
from the central ornament. Aigrettes and hat ornaments were 
of importance in the Jacobean parure. The letters of 
James I to his son and Buckingham at the time of the 
Spanish Embassy in 1623 give description of those he is 
sending for their use. 1 The famous pendant of Charles the 
Bold, last Duke of Burgundy, set with the rubies known as 
' the Three Brethren," was reset for the purpose. James 
wrote to his son that he was sending for his " Babie's owin 
wearing " the " Three Brethren, that you knowe full well, but 
newlie sette, and the Mirroure of France, the fellowe of the 

1 Calendar of State Papers, Domestic, March 18, 1623. Nichols, Progresses of 
James 7, pp. 831 and 845. 



Portugall dyamont, quhiche I wolde wishe you to weare alone 
in your hatte with a little blakke feather." To Buckingham, 
who accompanied Charles, he wrote, "As for my sweete 
Goseppe, I send thee a fair table dyamonde, quiche I wolde 
once have gevin thee before, if thow wolde have taken it, and 
I have hung a fair pearle to it for wearing on thy hatte or 
quhair thow plaisis ; and if my Babie will spaire the two long 
dyamonts in form of an anker with the pendant dyamont, it 
were fit for an Admirall to weare, and he hath enough better 
Jewells for his mistresse. ... If my Babie will not spare the 
anker from his mistresse, he may well lende thee his rounde 
broache * to wear, and yet he shall have Jewells to wear in his 
hatte for 3 great dayes." 

Among the jewels for the Infanta was "a head dressing 
of two and twenty great peare pearles ; and ye shall give her 
three goodlie peare pendant dyamonte, quhair of the biggest 
to be worne at a needle on the middeth of her forehead, and 
one in every eare." Pear pearls are shewn thus worn in the 
portrait of Anne of Denmark by Van Somer in the National 
Portrait Gallery, together with a coronet of pearls and coral 
hearts. The design of these ornaments was influenced by 
that of lace : a portrait of Elizabeth Lady Wentworth at 
Hatfield shews her wearing a wide coronet of pearls 
apparently strung on wires, in a design like that of cutwork. 

The fantastic fashions of the reign of Elizabeth were 
modified by the diminished splendour of the Court and by 

1 These circular enseignes were sometimes called targets. Cf. Henry VIII's inventory 
for 1526 (Brewer Letters and Papers^ pt. I, No. 1907). " A Target enamelled black, etc.," 
and Thompson, Collection of Inventories of the Royal Jewel House of Scotland. Inventory 
of 1542, " Bonnetis with their settis and tergatas." 


the influence of French modes. One of the few remaining 
vagaries of fashion was a vogue for wearing only one ear-ring, 
illustrated in portraits of Raleigh, the Earl of Southampton, 
and Robert Carr, Earl of Somerset. The mode lasted till 
the end of the reign of Charles I, who gave the pear pearl 
ear-ring he was accustomed to wear to one of his few friends 
by the scaffold, from whom it has descended to the present 
Duke of Portland. 

Another odd fashion was the ear-string, a short length of 
black cord threaded through a hole in the lobe of the ear, 
which was sometimes used instead of the usual metallic ring 
to support a small pendant. The two ear-rings did not 
always match : a portrait of Elizabeth Basset, ist Duchess of 
Newcastle, 1 shews one pear pearl ear-ring and one in the 
shape of a heart with a crown of pearls. 

Jewels, of which the chief interest lies in the gems with 
which they are set, rarely survive more than a few generations 
without being reset. The Civil War helped to break up the 
treasures of the great families, and very few jewelled orna- 
ments of this period survive. Pictures are the chief source 
of information for jewels of the kind. Henrietta Maria is 
depicted in her portraits wearing a necklace and ear-rings of 
the famous pearls she inherited from her mother, which once 
formed part of the dowry of Catharine de Medici. She 
set a fashion for wearing but little jewellery, generally a short 
necklace of pearls, and more rarely a jewelled chain slung 
from the shoulders. The portrait of her by Vandyck at 
Windsor 2 depicts a necklace of pearls and jewelled medal- 

1 At Welbeck, Catalogue, p. 103. 2 Historical Portraits Exhibition, 1866, No. 566. 


lions worn over the top of the arm, round the waist, and 
passing from the other shoulder across the body. A few 
of her portraits, such as that by Van Dyck, belonging to the 
Duke of Northumberland, 1 depict her with her dress fastened 
with gold ornaments shaped like doves, their breasts set with 
dark stones. The majority, however, shew the brooches of 
large stones simply set with pearls, familiar in portraits of 
rather later date, which depict them worn on the shoulder. 
Occasionally these brooches are in the form of a cross of 
five large table-cut gems with three pendant pearls. These 
probably represent actual jewels, but some of the ornaments 
shewn in pictures only existed in the brain of the artist 
or his model. Lady Sussex wrote to Ralph Verney in 
November, i659: 2 "I have seen sables with the clasp of 
them set with dimons if thos that I am pictuerde in wher 
don so i think it would look very wel in the pictuer. If S r . 
Vandyke thinke it would do well i pray desier him to do all 
the clawes so." 3 

Faceted stones or pastes were at this date often set in 
surrounds of twisted wire and mounted in heavy collets with 
beaded edges. (Plate XXIV, 10, 11.) Both these devices 
served to enhance the apparent size of the gems, which 

1 Stuart Exhibition, No. 72. 2 Verney Memoirs, I, p. 257. 

3 Cf. 1587. Inventory of Elizabeth (B.M., MSS., Royal Appendix, 68), under heading 
"Furres"; Elizabeth's New Year's Gift from the Earl of Leicester (Nichols, Progresses 
of Elizabeth, II, 426), "a sable skynne, the hedd and four feet of gold, fully garnished 
with diamonds and rubies of sundry sorts"; Stowe MS., 560, 1586: inventory of the 
Jewels of Mary Queen of Scots; "A martien, the Head and feet being of gold, and the 
Neck sett with Diamonds and Rubies ; A Hermine, with feet and head of gold the necke 
and eyes sett with Rubies and Diamonds" ; and Inventory of the Countess of Leicester, 
1634 (Halliwell, Ancient Inventories, p. 4). " One sable, with a guilded head and clawes. 
. . . The clawes of other sables." Evelyn, Mundus Muliebris, 1690, mentions "a hand- 
some set of tags for palatine," the fashionable fur tippet. 


had come to play the most important part in the design of 
the jewel. 

In the closing years of Elizabeth's reign stronger foreign 
influences became apparent in the designs of such ornaments 
as miniature cases. The XVII century development of 
gem-cutting and setting was balanced by the advance of the 
arts of watchmaking and miniature painting in colours and 
enamel, for in connection with these the art of enamelling 
developed under strong foreign influences outside the field of 
the ordinary gem-setting jeweller. The most characteristic 
and most beautiful style of enamel to be found on Jacobean 
jewellery is champlevd enamel in a single colour with the 
pattern in outline in the metallic ground, commonly in curves 
of flat and broken strapwork. Designs in this style were 
engraved by several of the German " Little Masters," by 
Daniel Mignot of Augsburg, Michael le Blon, Jehan Vovart, 
Etienne Carteron and others. The existing English ex- 
amples, it they are not line-for-lme copies of these designs, 
closely follow them in style. 

The finest is the Lyte jewel, now in the Waddesdon 
Collection in the British Museum. (Plate XXIII, 1-3.) It 
was given by James I to Mr. Thomas Lyte, of Lyte's Gary, 
in reward for a lengthy pedigree he compiled for the King, 
and is shewn in a portrait of its first owner, dated 1 6 1 1 , 
belonging to Sir Henry Maxwell Lyte. It is an oval pen- 
dant of enamelled gold, containing a miniature of James I 
as a young man, by Isaac Oliver. The rim is set with table 
diamonds, and the pierced cover with a monogram I.R. in 
brilliant enamel similarly set. The back is enamelled in the 




outline style in white, picked out with ruby enamel, and with 
the edge enamelled alternately in ruby and blue. Enamel 
work of identical design decorates the back of the case of a 
miniature of Charles I painted by Peter Oliver in 1626, now 
in the Pierpont Morgan Collection. Similar work was also 
used to decorate the settings of rings. (Plate XXIII, 4, 6.) 
Relatively simple patterns of conventional curves continued to 
be reproduced. The back of a watch signed " David Ramsay 
Scotus me fecit" once in the Spitzer Collection, 1 was enamelled 
in translucent blue. On this field a conventional pattern of 
curved lines was executed in raised cells filled with enamel 
and applied to the background. 

The "pea-pod" designs of Jean Toutin and his school 
rivalled the outline strapwork in popularity on the Continent, 
and decorate miniature cases and watches that may be pre- 
sumed to be of English workmanship. The back of the case 
of a miniature by Peter Oliver in the Dyce Collection (Plate 
XXIII) is so decorated in white on a ground of translucent 
green enamel over matted gold, after a design by the French- 
man, Pierre Firens. This type of design was also executed 
in the delicate process known as e-mail en re'sille sur verre. 
This consisted in scooping out cells in a plaque of glass, 
lining them with foil and filling them with enamel more easily 
fusible than the glass ground. A good example of this style 
is the case of a watch in the British Museum (Plate XXIII, 
6 and 8) made of a slab of blue glass decorated in tmail en 
re'sille sur verre. This watch is signed by Daniel Bouquet, a 
Frenchman who worked in London between 1630 and 1640. 

1 Catalogue^ Montres, No. 2. 


He and his countrymen, Bordier, Petitot and Michael le 
Blon, were the most important of a band of French jewellers, 
enamellers and designers who gathered at the English Court. 
By working in England such foreign denizens helped to 
naturalize Continental styles in this country, and therefore take 
rank with their English colleagues. At the same time it 
must not be forgotten that many objects of art made in 
England at this time and legitimately considered to be 
English were made by foreign workmen, and have much 
closer relation with contemporary French work than with 
English artistic traditions. Moreover, many objects of per- 
sonal adornment were imported, and among them much 
jewellery. The dandy could put on 

" The Savoy chain about his neck, the ruff 
And cuffs of Flanders ; then the Naples hat 
With the Rome hatband, and the Florentine agate, 
The Milan sword, the cloak of Geneva, set 
With Brabant buttons." l 

The fine jewel, worn and lost by Charles I on the field of 
Naseby, now in the Soane Museum, is obviously of German 
workmanship. The French craftsmen at the Court of Charles 
introduced new technical processes, such as dmcdl en resille sur 
verre, and painting in enamel ; new forms, such as the montres 
d" abbesses? and new styles of decoration. Toutin's invention 
of a process by which a plate of metal could be coated 
with opaque enamel in a plain colour, on which designs 
could be painted in fusible colours, considerably extended 

1 Ben Jonson, The New Inn (c. 1629). 

2 A watch of this shape, engraved with figures of Christ, the Virgin, the Apostles, 
and the Resurrection, and signed " D. Bouquet a Londres," was in the Spitzer Collection 
Catalogue, Montres, No. 19. 




the scope of the enameller's art. Figure work, which 
was executed with great skill in France under Louis 
XIII and XIV, is hardly found in England except in 
portrait miniatures till the end of the century: but designs of 
natural flowers, which lent themselves well to such a process, 
were introduced here by Bouquet and achieved popularity. 
The liking for such designs is a reflection of the ' tulipo- 
mania," which reached its height in Holland about 1635 
and spread over Europe. Watches were made in the shape 
of tulips, and the flower vies with the tiger lily, crown imperial, 
fritillary, daffodil, and rose in the designs of painted floral 
enamel in the work of the ornamentists Ldgare, Moncornet, 
and Vauquer. Such design is seen at its best, executed with 
all the refinements of Toutin's process, on a watch made in 
London by Daniel Bouquet. (Plate XXV, 2, in the 
British Museum.) The design closely resembles an engraved 
pattern by Gilles Le"gare, and is executed in natural colours in 
slight relief on a black ground. The lid is set with a circle 
of diamonds. Imitations of this style by English craftsmen 
are usually in flat enamel: a good example is the cover of 
a miniature of Oliver Cromwell, in the Ashmolean Museum 
(Plate XXV, i), painted with roses and leaves in natural 
colours on a white ground. Work in relief is relatively rare : 
examples are the setting of an antique cameo, 1 and the reverse 
of the Onyx George (Plate A, 7) of Charles II, both in the 
Royal Collection at Windsor. Similar work is also found 
on rings and seals. I have a ring so decorated with tulips 
and a skull and crossbones in grisaille, and the steel seal of 

1 Clifford Smith, Jewellery, Plate XLIV, 15. 


Anne Fitzroy, daughter of Barbara Villiers, in the collection 
of Colonel Croft Lyons, has its shank enamelled in relief in 
the manner of Gilles Ldgare*. 

English craftsmen, however, never took very kindly to the 
style, and it suffered many changes and a rapid degradation 
at their hands. A watch in the Victoria and Albert Museum 1 
is decorated with a floral design of the usual kind executed in 
flat champlevd enamel, in which the characteristic charm 
of the style is lost. A variant, in which the lines of the 
design are somewhat debased, is seen at the back of a fine 
pendant belonging to the Duchess of Portland (Plate XXV, 
7 and 9), which was bequeathed as a heirloom by her ancestor, 
James Dallas, in 1683. The circular form, set with con- 
centric rows of triangular diamonds, and the interesting 
pierced border at the back, owe something to the design of 
Gilles Ldgard, but the ornament is probably of English 
workmanship. Several jewels of the middle of the century 
exist in which a rather coarse kind of this enamel is combined 
with rows of coloured stones. A brooch in the collection of 
Miss Reavil (Plate XXV, 5) is in the shape of a bow, lightly 
painted with small flowers, and set with lines of rubies. It 
recalls the " fair knot of gold enamelled with Tulipps and set 
with diamonds," which belonged to Lady Warwick just before 
the Restoration. 2 Precisely the same style of decoration is to 
be seen on a watch set with garnets in the British Museum. 
(Plate XXV, 4 and 6.) Such floral designs were not con- 
fined to enamel, but were also executed in pierced and 

1 Plate XXV, 8 : See Burlington Magazine, April, 1917, p. 144. 

2 Verney Memoirs ', III, p. 428. 



engraved metal. The large alarum clock-watch made for 
Charles I by Edward East 1 has the back of the case pierced 
with a patter of roses, lilies, daffodils, tulips, and fritillaries, 
and a pocket-watch made by Jeremy Gregory, 2 in the Nel- 
thropp Collection, 3 has the back pierced in the same style. 

The Court of France was at this time enthusiastic in the 
collection of antique gems of all kinds, which were mounted 
in enamelled settings. The taste for such articles de vertu 
spread to the Court of Charles I and led to the formation of 
collections of tine seals and intaglios. An amusing account 
of the vogue they enjoyed under the Commonwealth may be 
found in the correspondence of Dorothy Osborne and her 
lover, Sir William Temple. 4 

Early in 1653 she writes: 5 "That daughter of my Lord 
Holland 6 is here. She says that seals are much in fashion, 
and by shewing me some that she has has set me a-longing for 
some too ; such as are oldest are most prized, and if you know 
anybody that is lately come out of Italy, 'tis ten to one but 
they have a store, for they are very common there. I do 
remember you once sealed a letter to me with as fine a one 
as I have seen. It was a Neptune, I think, riding upon a 
dolphin ; but I'm afraid it was not yours, for I saw it no 
more. My old Roman head is a present for a prince." 

The next letter gives particulars of the length to which 
the fashion was carried : "I have sent into Italy for seals ; 

1 Britten, Old Clocks and Watches, and edition, p. 262. 

3 Admitted to the Clockmakers' Company, 1652, Master 1576 (d. 1685). 

3 No. 15. 

* Letters from Dorothy Osborne to Sir William Temple. Ed. by E. A. Parry. 

6 p. 38. Lady Diana Rich. 


'tis to be hoped that by the time mine come over, they may 
be out of fashion again ; for 'tis an humour that your old 
acquaintance Mr. Smith and his lady has brought up ; they 
say she wears twenty strung upon a ribbon, like nuts boys 
play withal, and I do not hear of anything else." The 
question of mounting the seals obtained crops up later in 
the year ; l a Frenchman was employed, " whose invention 
can stretch no further than blue and red. Because you would 
have a dolphin he consented to do it, but it is like an ill- 
favoured knot of ribbon." 

The Renaissance appreciation of life was balanced by 
a new apprehension of death as the end of the joy of living. 
The Danse Macabre took its place in art, and the homilies 
of the Protestant moralists fell upon sensitive ears. This 
sense of mortality was expressed not only in literature and 
pictorial art but even in the designs of jewels. The devo- 
tional memorial jewellery of the XV century such as rings 
with the Five Wounds was succeeded by Memento Mori 
rings, serving to emphasize the imminence of death rather 
than to recall the memory of the individual. Robert Fabyan 
in 1 5 1 1 2 directed that rings should be given to his pall- 
bearers, inscribed Memento. A common type is set with a 
cameo death's head with some such inscription. One in 
the Fortnum Collection in the Ashmolean Museum is in- 
scribed : "Behold, the. en" Beaumont and Fletcher in 
Chances* wrote : 

"I'll keep it, 

As they keep death's head in rings, 
To cry memento to me." 

1 p. 77. 2 Testamenta Vestusta, II, p. 503. 3 Act I, Scene 3. 


The fashion for Memento Mori jewellery of all kinds 
which arose in England in the later years of the XVI 
century is said to have originated with Diane de Poitiers 
when, in her first widowhood, she led the fashions at the 
French Court. The mode was reflected in the cameos of the 
time ; the inventory of the stock of John Mabbe l records 
Two jewels having a Agot in eyther Jewell like a Deathe's 
Head." Another ornament in his stock decorated with a 
favourite emblem of memorial artists was " a cheyne of golde 
garnished with Mother of Pearl and Hower Glasses." A 
characteristic English jewel of this kind is a pendant in the 
shape of a coffin, which opens to show a skeleton. One of 
about 1600, in the Victoria and Albert Museum 2 (Plate 
XXIV, i, 3) is decorated with scrolls and arabesques re- 
served in gold on a black ground and inscribed " Through 
the resurrection of Christe we be all sanctified" It contains a 
skeleton enamelled white. A smaller plain coffin pendant in 
the British Museum bears the legend " Cogita mori ut vivas." 
An early XVII century jewel, said to have belonged to 
James I, 3 was an apple of silver containing a small skull, the 
top of which was opened to disclose a representation of the 
Creation and Resurrection, with the inscription "Post mortem 
vita eterna" 

With the XVII century bequests of mourning rings 
become common ; for instance, Lady Anne Drury of Hard- 
wicke 4 in 1621 bequeathed "to all my brothers' wyves, ringes 
to remember me. . . . And I also bequeath, wch I had 

1 Rymer, Fcedera, XV, p. 75. 2 3581, '56. Found at Tor Abbey, Devon. 

3 Fairholt, Miscellanea Grap/iica, p. 63. Once in the Londesborough Collection. 

4 Tymms, Bury Wills and Inventories, p. 166. 


forgotten, tenne pounds a peece to all my brothers to buye 
them ringes, and twentie pounds to be bestowed in rings of 
tenne shillinges amongest my friends, whom they shall thinke 
fitt." Rings of the death's head type continued to be given. 
Jasper Despotin, of Bury, bequeathed to his friends in 1648* 
"ten rings of gold to be made of the value of twenty shillings 
a peece sterling, with a death's head upon some of them." . . . 
The inscriptions on these rings were usually of a monitory 
sort : Memento Mori, Remember Death ; Live to die ; Dye to 
live ; Breath paine, Death gaine ; As I am, you must bee ; 
Hodie mihi, eras tibi; Nosse te ipsinn, and Prepare for death. 
Sometimes the initials of the donor were introduced in such 
phrases as Prepare to follow R.f. 

Directions for these inscriptions are given in many wills. 2 
Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) left to the Fellows of Eton 
gold rings enamelled in black "Amor unit omnia" Speaker 
Lenthall bequeathed fifty rings inscribed "Oritur non moritur" 
and Izaak Walton in 1683 left rings worth 135. 4d. to his 
family, inscribed "Love my memory, I. IV." to the Bishop of 
Winchester one inscribed "A mite for a million, I.W." 
and to his other friends rings with the legend " A friends 

After the execution of Charles I many memorial rings and 
other jewels were made, and more or less secretly worn by 
his adherents. A certain number have been preserved, nearly 
all containing his portrait concealed in the bezel. (Plate 
XXIII, 9, 10.) One type of ring, an example of which was 
once in the possession of the Giffard family, has its bezel set 

1 Tymms, Bury Wills and Inventories, p. 201. 2 See Jones, Finger Ring Lore. 


with four diamonds, which, on lifting up, disclose the King's 
portrait in enamel. Another has an oval bezel minutely 
enamelled with the four Cardinal Virtues. When a spring is 
pressed this opens to disclose a portrait of Charles and a skull 
and crossbones enamelled within the lid. Sometimes the 
familiar death's head was used. One of this type in the 
Victoria and Albert Museum has the motto round the bezel 
"Behold the end" and on the other shank "Rather death 
than fals faytk" 

When Henrietta Maria had sold, pawned, or given away 
all her magnificent jewels, she had rings made, called " King's 
Pledges," which she gave in exchange for loans or gifts of 
money. 1 The bezel of these rings was ornamented with 
her cipher H.M.R., wrought in very fine filigree laid on a 
ground of crimson silk, covered with a thick table-cut crystal, 
and set in gold. Jewels of this kind, set with crystals behind 
which are figures, skulls, crossbones or initials in fine gold 
thread on a ground of silk or woven hair, are the most 
typical ornaments of the time. Occasionally they are rimmed 
with pastes, pearls, or stones of little value, but more often 
they are plainly mounted in gold. A few have the back 
enamelled. (Plate XXIV, 5-8.) An unusually elaborate 
example is a pendant lent by Mrs. Derwent Simmons to 
the Ashmolean Museum. It is said to have been presented 
to her ancestress by Henrietta Maria ; a medallion, decorated 
with minute figures in relief, enamelled in translucent enamel, 
covered with a faceted crystal and rimmed with alternate 
amethysts and pearls set in silver. This kind of ornament 

1 Jones, Precious Stones, p. 303. 


was commonly used for the clasps and slides of the necklets 
and bracelets that came into fashion at this time. These were 
sometimes made of black ribbon, and sometimes of hair ; 
we hear of " three or four gentlemen who wear an ounce of 
Lady Shrewsbury's hair made into bracelets." Decoration 
of this kind was employed on memorial jewellery. The 
Memento Mori type of memorial ring continued to be used 
down to the middle of the XVIII century, but from the 
Restoration till about 1720 a second type is also found, with 
an oval or circular bezel with a skull or monogram in gold 
thread over a ground of hair. The memorial ring of Queen 
Mary in the British Museum has a plain hoop enamelled 
with three lines of black and a lozenge-shaped bezel, having 
on the top the monogram M.R. in gold thread on a ground 
of plaited hair beneath a faceted crystal, and on the back a 
death's head and crossbones enamelled in black. 

One of the mourning rings for Queen Anne 2 has the 
hoop decorated with skeletons and hour-glasses on a ground 
of enamel and an oval bezel with the letters A. and G. in 
gold thread under crystal. Within the shank is the inscrip- 
tion " AR. obt. i Augt. 1714. cetat 49 years in ye ij y.o. 
Ruigne" Posy and wedding rings were sometimes converted 
into this type of memorial ring, which accounts for examples 
with apparently discordant mottoes. 

Wedding rings were often jewelled at this date ; the first 
wedding ring of Mary of Modena (worn after her marriage 
by proxy) was set with a diamond, according to contemporary 
Italian fashion, but the ring given to her at her marriage in 

1 A. Hamilton, Memoirs of Count Grammont, Chap. IX. * B.M., 1434. 


England was set with a fine ruby. 1 A common type, still 
used by the Claddagh peasants, has the bezel formed of two 
clasped hands holding a heart. 2 

The marriage rings of the XVII century were often 
inscribed with rhymed couplets in English, such as 

" In God above and Christ his sonne 
We two are joyned both in one, 
Knitt in one by Christ alone 
Wee joyne our love in God above." 

Many posy rings were inscribed with amatory mottoes, such as 
/ love and lyke my choyse and / cktise not to change. A 
number of such rings have survived on account of their small 
intrinsic value, and there are many printed and manuscript 
collections of posies. 3 They are usually inscribed on plain 
hoops of gold, sometimes engraved in a simple pattern. 
Some posy rings of very small size may have been given 
as Valentines to children, perhaps by someone like Pepys, 
who, when in 1667 he drew Mrs. Pierce's little girl as his 
Valentine, was glad that he could get off with a cheaper gift 
than an older woman would have expected. 

The Civil War destroyed the treasures of the English 
Renaissance as ruthlessly as the Reformation had destroyed 

1 Strickland, Lives of the Queens of England, VI, p. 56. 

2 e.g. B.M., No. 1022. 

3 See B.M., Harl. MS. 6910; A Helpe to Discourse, 1635; The Card of Courtship, 
1653 ; The Mysteries of Love and Eloquence, 1658 ; A New Academy of Compliments, 1741 ; 
Fennell's Antiquarian Chronicle and Literary Advertiser, June, 1882, p. 13 ; Notes and 
Queries, 2nd series, IV, 118, 166, 429; VII, 251 ; 3rd series, III, 503; IV, 83, 243, 382 ; 
4th series, V, 341 ; 8th series, XI, 328 ; Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries, Index, 
s.v. Rings; Archaeological Journal, XVI, 306; XVII, 184; XIX, 172; XX, 195, 200, 
377 ; Catalogue of Exhibition of Antiquities of Ironmongers' 1 Hall, 1869, p. 506 ; Catalogue 
of South Kensington Exhibition of 1873, pp. 80, 81 ; Catalogue of Rings in the British 
Museum, Medueval, p. 174 seqq. ; Sir John Evans, Longman's Magazine, May, 1892, p. 26. 


those of the Middle Ages. Innumerable jewels were sold 
and broken up at home or on the Continent, and private 
individuals and public bodies united in devoting their valuables 
to the furtherance of the cause they adopted. After the 
King's death a Commission was appointed to dispose of 
the Crown jewels and the royal collections, and even the 
crowns of King Alfred and Queen Edith were sold to be 
broken up. 

The Restoration brought a foreign element of splendour 
into English art, and re-established the Court of St. James in 
emulation if not in rivalry of that of Versailles. Though the 
decline of the fashion for stiffly fitting clothes, the vogue for a 
profusion of lace and ribbon and the introduction of flowing 
wigs were not favourable to the display of jewels, the stones 
with which they were set made them exceedingly costly. 
James II, in 1702, sold a diamond girdle and buckle and 
twelve buttons and loops for ^2 1,000, and a pair of diamond 
shoe buckles for ^3000. The French merchant, Sir John 
Chardin, settled in London after his travels in the East with 
an immense stock of Oriental gems, and the revocation of the 
Edict of Nantes, in 1685, brought over many French crafts- 
men to join him. At this time the most eminent representatives 
of the purely English jewellers were the bankers Alderman 
Edward Backwell and Sir Francis Child, who produced solid 
ornaments of high quality more remarkable for their value 
than for delicacy or freshness of design. Such jewels are the 
clasps seen on the lustrous satins of the pictures of the 
beauties of the Court, usually made of large square stones with 
smaller gems at the angles, and linked chains of jewels slung 


from shoulder to shoulder, or drawn across the body. 1 Por- 
traits of the last quarter of the century shew men wearing 
rather close-fitting coats fastened with three or four jewelled 
clasps, or with alternate ribbon bows and jewels. A picture 
of Mary of Modena in the National Portrait Gallery depicts 
her dress fastened with " girandole " brooches on the shoulders, 
and other portraits in Court dress shew a series of graduated 
bow brooches of the kind known as Sevignds down the front 
of the bodice. The taste of the time, accustomed to the 
display of contemporary French and Italian Courts, still 
demanded a profusion of jewels for occasions of ceremony. 
A contemporary description of Mary of Modena 2 records 
that ' the jewels she had on were reckoned at a million's 
worth, which made her shine like an angel." Evelyn's 
Mundus Muliebris, published in 1690, gives a rhymed list of 
a lady's ornaments, that shews in how many ways such jewels 
might be disposed : 

" Diamond buckles too, 
For garters, and as rich for shoo . . . 
A manteau girdle, ruby buckle, 
And brilliant diamond rings for knuckle . . . 
A Saphire bodkin for the hair, 
Or sparkling facet diamonds there ; 
Then turquois, ruby, emrauld rings 
For fingers, and such petty things 
As diamond pendants for the ears 
Must needs be had, or two pearl pears, 
Pearl neck-lace, large and oriental, 
And diamond, and of amber pale." 

1 e.g. Portraits of Catherine Lady Poley at Boxted Hall, Suffolk ; Farrer, Portraits 
in West Suffolk Houses, p. 31, and of Lady Fanshawe, by Lely, at Bratton Fleming, 
Collins Baker, Vol. I, p. 123. 

* Jones, Precious Stones, p. 311. 

1 A new Consort's crown was made for her, and is still among the regalia. 


Jewels of the kind were not within reach of everyone, and 
various substitutes for diamonds and precious stones were set 
in the same way : faceted crystals, pastes, marcassite (see Plate 
XXIV, 10), and false pearls. The design of such ornaments 
is usually simple : a bow, a rosette, and a cluster are typical 
forms. Occasionally a medley of coloured gems was used. 
A brooch of about 1700 in the Victoria and Albert Museum 
is set with a peridot surrounded by eight transparent gems of 
different colours. 

After the Restoration there was a fleeting revival of 
enamel, chiefly used upon watches. One in the Smart 
Bequest in the Fitzwilliam Museum, made by Henry Jones, 
jeweller to Charles II, is designed as a gold-centred flower 
with many tiny radiating petals enamelled blue, picked out in 
black and white. At the same time designs of figure subjects 
were more frequently used. In the London Gazette of July 
13-17, 1676, is the following advertisement: "Lost on the 
1 3th inst., a Gold Watch enamelled, the outside case sealskin 
studded with gold ; in the backside of it was the history of 
St. Paul's Conversion, with small character Saul Saul quid 
me persequeris ? And on the Dial part was the stoning of 
Stephen, with landskip round about ; and in the inside of the 
back, a Damask Rose exactly enamelled." The advertise- 
ment also mentions the outside case in this instance of 
sealskin studded with gold made necessary by the delicacy 
of the ornament on the backs of watches. These cases were 
sometimes made of shagreen or other leather studded with 
minute points of gold or silver, but were often of gold or gilt 


Work in metal was as important in the second half of the 
century as work in enamel had been under James and 
Charles I. About 1640 a fashion for filigree work in gold 
was introduced from the Low Countries. Such work is seen 
in many miniature frames of the middle of the century and on 
the cases of watches ; for instance, on the case of a watch in 
the British Museum made by Benjamin Hill, of London, 
about 1640. Filigree continued to be used for watch cases 
for some years, but was little employed for other ornaments. 
Miniature cases were made with backs of chased metal 
decorated with graceful ciphers (Plate XXVI, 2), and such 
chasing and engraving came to be a very important branch of 
gold-work. The use of gold was supplemented by the inven- 
tion of gilt metals and alloys, such as pinchbeck, an alloy of 
copper and zinc, sometimes washed with gold. The inventor 
of this, Christopher Pinchbeck, was himself a well-known 
maker of ornamental watches. Both gold and its imitations 
were largely used for chatelaines supporting watches and 
etuis " twees " or equipages, with seals, keys, thimble cases 
and instrument cases, such as Lady Mary Wortley Montagu 
describes in her fourth Town Eclogue : 1 

" Behold this equipage, by Mathers wrought, 
With fifty guineas (a great penn'orth !) bought. 
See on the toothpick Mars and Cupid strive, 
And both the struggling figures seem to live. 
Upon the bottom see the Queen's bright face, 
A myrtle foliage round the thimble case ; 
Jove, Jove himself does on the scissors shine, 
The metal and the workmanship divine." 

Such things had earlier been worn hanging from the girdle. 

1 Dodsley's Collection, Vol. I, p. 96. 


In The French Garden for English ladyes and gentlewomen to 
walk in of 1621 the mistress says to the maid : " Give me my 
girdle, and see that all the furniture be at it : looke if my cizers, 
the pincers, the pen knife, the knife to close letters, with the 
bodkin, the ear picker, and the seal be in the case." These 
were succeeded by the " French crochet," mentioned in the 
Mundus Muliebris, and in a list of jewels belonging to Queen 
Mary and claimed after her death by Queen Anne. 1 

Classical subjects were the usual motives of decoration. 
A watch by Windmills, of London, for instance, 2 has the 
case decorated with the story of Alexander and Diogenes, 
and a chatelaine in my collection has its top decorated with 
the banquet of Antony and Cleopatra. Occasionally it is 
possible to know the name of the chaser ; the case of a watch 
by Thomas Mudge, of London, in the collection of Mr. 
Dyson Perrins, chased with the rescue of Andromeda, has 
the hall-mark of 1757 and the signature "J. Gastrill," and 
the great chasers, Manby and Moser, also sometimes signed 
their work. Such delicate gold chasing of figures in a setting 
of flower, scroll, or architectural pattern, is rivalled by work 
where gold is used as the setting of plain surfaces of precious 
materials. A watch in the British Museum, made for James 
II, and given by him to his daughter the Countess of 
Anglesey, has the back of the watch engraved with great 
delicacy with flower and scroll ornament enclosing the Royal 
Arms ; the outer case (Plate XXVI, 4) is formed of curved 
plaques of red cornelian over gold, set in a border of gold 

1 B.M., Stowe MS., 560 (c. 1709), "A Crotchet of Diamonds and Rubies." 
* Nelthropp Collection, No. 35. 



decorated with pierced work and chasing in low relief, the 
central stone being a cameo. A similar case in the same 
collection is formed of plaques of banded agate. A variant 
of this kind of decoration is seen on a chatelaine, key, and 
repeating watch in the Smart Bequest, in the Fitzwilliam 
Museum, made by Thuilst about 1705, and engraved with 
the arms of Queen Anne. The top of the chatelaine, the 
linked medallions which hang from it, the key and the case 
of the watch are inlaid with mother-of-pearl, set with red 
stones, in a border of chased gold partly enamelled in black, 
picked out in red. A beautiful watch case in the collection 
of Mr. Dyson Perrins is ornamented with plaques of lapis 
lazuli mounted with gold and set with diamonds and rubies. 
(Plate XXVI, 6.) The cheaper imitations of this style are 
usually of pinchbeck set with flat plaques of agate, often of a 
yellow-brown colour. 

The XVII century was a time when England was more 
strongly under foreign influences than ever before. The 
close relations between this country and France under the 
Stuart dynasty, the direct patronage extended to foreign 
workmen by Charles I and Charles II, the connection of 
England and Holland under William and Mary at a time 
when the Netherlands were in close touch with the East, and 
the place that foreign travel had come to take in the education 
of the aristocracy, all served to break down insular isolation. 
The taste for classical learning and classical art was a bond 
between the nations, and artistic formulae, like the ancient 
languages, were understood and appreciated throughout the 
length and breadth of Europe. 



The standard of English art rose with the general 
standard of taste above the level of insularity. None the 
less the national character was not weakened but strengthened 
by this process of growth, and the succeeding century witnesses 
the development of a characteristic English style. 



r iHE XVIII century is to England what the XVI is 
I to Italy and the XVII to France: the time when 
classicism dominated literature, thought and art. The 
Five Orders imposed their rules upon architecture, and the 
classical motives of architectural detail dictated the design of 
the minor arts. Yet as in the earlier years of the English 
Renaissance classicism came into conflict with the national 
spirit which still clung to the traditions of the Middle Ages, 
so in its later years, when it had been accepted by the national 
spirit, it had to contend with the influences which reached 
England from countries where mature classicism had been 
modified by national developments. 

The gold-work of the later Stuart period shews in its 
frame-work and detail forms that recall those of the architec- 
ture and furniture of the time. (See Plate XXVI.) Even 
jewelled work was subject to the same influence. The pattern 
book published in London by J. B. Herbst in 1710' gives 
designs for diamond ornaments chiefly composed of classical 
scrolls in low relief, with engraved decoration on the 
back. This style of ornament long continued in fashion : 
designs of the same kind, but of lighter proportions, are 

1 A book of Severall Jewelers Work made by J. B. Herbst. 



given in the Livre d'Ouvrages, published by Jean Guien 
in 1762. l 

At the beginning of the XVIII century France was 
the centre to which the jewellers of Europe looked for their 
inspiration, and it was thence that the engraved books of 
designs were issued, which were afterwards reprinted in the 
other countries. Practically all the English pattern books 
were reprinted from publications by French artists, or by 
Dutchmen designing in the French style, or were compiled 
by foreigners working in London. Such men brought to 
England the rocaille style of decoration, which lost some of its 
original refinement and vivacity in taking a definitely English 
character. Its incoherent riot of scrolls and shell-work not 
only directly inspired the design of much work in gold and 
silver, but also indirectly helped to break up the formal prin- 
ciples of ornament by accustoming the eye to irregular and 
asymmetrical forms. These tendencies are marked in the 
pattern book published by Thomas Flach in I736. 2 Designs 
of this kind were sometimes executed in enamelled gold (Plate 
XXVII, 2), or, more often, in embossed gold or pinchbeck 
with a matted ground. A typical example is a watch and 
chatelaine in the Smart Bequest with the hall-mark for 1753 
(Plate XXVII, 3), which shows rococo scroll-work com- 
bined with classical figures. These were later succeeded by 
romantic subjects, such as the story of Abelard and Heloise. 
About the middle of the century a growing fashion for purely 
floral ornament began to affect the design of jewels. Such 

1 Livre cFOuvrages de Jouaillerie invente et grave par Jean Guien Jonaitt r . a Londres. 
z A Book of Jeweller's work designed by Thomas Flach in London. 



decoration is seen in the pattern book published by Dinglinger 
in 1751 1 (Plate XXVII, 7 and 8 ; Plate XXVIII, 4, 6, 7, 
10), and in the designs published by T. D. Saint about ten 
years later. Dinglinger's patterns have some of the twisted 
liveliness of rococo work, but Saint's are rather dead and 
uninteresting. Floral design in the style of Dinglinger is 
used to decorate a watch and chatelaine by Francis Pdrigal, 
of London, in the Smart Bequest (Plate XXVII, 5), executed 
in e'mail en taille d'dpargne, in which the pattern is chiselled 
away and rilled with enamel flush with the ground. Flower 
designs were also used for the jewelled frames of miniatures 2 
and for giardinetti rings (Plate XXIX, 7 and 8), and often set 
with gems of many colours, which were fashionable from the 
middle of the century till about 1775. The rich bride in 
Colman and Garrick's Clandestine Marriage of ij66 3 tells 
her sister : "I have a bouquet to come home to-morrow, 
made up of diamonds, and rubies, and emeralds, and topazes, 
and amethysts jewels of all colours, green, red, blue, yellow, 
intermixt the prettiest thing you ever saw in your life ! " 

The French fashion for applied floral ornament on a 
ground of precious material spread to England, but was not 
so commonly used here as abroad. A watch and chatelaine 
made by John Rich in the Pierpont Morgan Collection is 
decorated in this manner. The back of the watch and the 
plaques of the chatelaine are made of white veined agate, set 

1 A new Book of Designs of Jewellers' Work by Sebastian Henry Dinglinger, Jeweller, 

2 A good example is the frame by Toussaint, the elder, of a miniature of Miss Mary 
Wilkcs, c. 1770-5, in the Pierpont Morgan Collection, bordered with roses and leaves in 
rubies and diamonds. 3 Act I, scene 2. 


in chased gold, with an encrustation of rubies and diamonds 
set as baskets of flowers. This kind of applied floral decora- 
tion was also used to decorate ovals of blue, red, and purple 
enamel or paste set with marcassites (Plate XXIX, i and 4), 
but the delicacy attained in French work of the same type 
was never achieved in England. A good example of work of 
this kind is a watch in the Smart Bequest (Plate XXX, i), 
which has a crystal back, shewing the movement, rimmed and 
strewn with marcassite flowers. 

The importation of Oriental lacquer, textiles, and china had 
brought European craftsmen into touch with the art of the 
East. This led to the production of French chinoiseries, and 
to the publication in England of designs in the Chinese style, 
by Chippendale and his associates, in the years from 1750 to 
1760. Ornament of this kind is, however, relatively rare in 
gold-work, though all the characteristics of the style are 
to be found in such jewels as the chatelaine reproduced in 
Plate XXVII, 5. 

About 1770 rocaille and floral decoration were superseded 
by styles of greater severity. Jewels were formed of a series 
of identical motives of symmetrical shape, usually links or 
clusters of faceted gems, pastes, gems, or steel. Such 
uniform designs were adopted to the new methods of manu- 
facture, in which multiplication of a single unit by machinery 
was beginning to supersede the old individual methods of 
production. One of the earliest fields for enterprise of this 
new kind was the manufacture of fictile plaques, satisfying at 
the same time the demand for handsome and relatively 
inexpensive ornaments and the popular taste for decoration in 

8 & 9 



the pure classic style. The dilettanti of the XVII and 
XVIII century had made great collections of classical 
gems, and French chemists working under the patronage of 
the Regent, had elaborated processes for their reproduction in 
paste. James Tassie, a stone-mason, studied modelling, and 
acquired the art of casting gems from Dr. Quin, Regius 
Professor of Physics in the University of Dublin. He settled 
in London in 1766, and rapidly made so great a reputation 
for his pastes that a complete set of his many thousands of 
models were ordered by the Empress of Russia. At the 
same time classical subjects from ancient gems and Roman 
plasterwork were reproduced by Josiah Wedgwood in forms 
and sizes that fitted them for the adornment of jewels, beads, 
seals, pear-shaped pendants for ear-rings, pendant scent- 
bottles, and round, oblong, elliptical and octagonal plaques, 
with white decoration on a blue or lilac ground. 

Similar subjects were reproduced in enamel and miniature 
painting. Both usually imitated sculpture in being painted in 
grisaille. Good examples of this style in the Smart Bequest 
are a watch and chatelaine by Robert Atkins (Plate B, 4), 
decorated with figure medallions in grisaille in borders of 
white and translucent orange enamel, and another by Francis 
Perigal (Plate B, 3), similarly decorated with chased borders 
picked out in blue and green. A little later such classical 
subjects were supplanted by pictures in coloured enamel ; a 
chatelaine in the same collection is decorated with Morland's 
Moralist in finely painted enamel bordered with pearls. 
(Plate B, i.) Such figure-work ousted work in chased and 
embossed gold from favour. George Michael Moser, a Swiss 


by birth, and one of the founders of the Royal Academy, 
who started life as a gold-chaser "the first in the Kingdom," 
according to Sir Joshua Reynolds was forced by the change 
of fashion to devote himself to figure compositions in enamel, 
in which he achieved an equal fame. Excellent work of this 
kind was also produced by Augustus Toussaint the younger, 
of Denmark Street, Soho, who exhibited both miniatures and 
enamels at the Royal Academy from 1775 to 1778. Some 
enamels made at Battersea between 1750 and 1775, and at the 
rival establishment at Bilston, were designed as cheap substi- 
tutes for fine work of this kind, some being made in oval form 
for use in clasps and slides, and others designed for buttons. 

Miniatures were commonly worn as pendants by both 
men and women, and in the last quarter of the century 
miniature paintings of figure subjects on ivory or vellum 
were often used to decorate brooches, clasps, slides and rings. 
They usually represented female figures in classical or pastoral 
dress. The Ladys Magazine for January, 1780, describes 
' velvet bracelets with sentimental designs." Of a cognate 
kind are memorial jewels with miniatures of female figures 
mourning beside a tomb, or with a landscape depicting an 
urn beneath a weeping willow. Such decoration was also 
used for memorial rings ; one in the British Museum so 
ornamented bears the inscription Remember you had once a 
son Gerald. Clasps, brooches and rings were alike usually 
rimmed with diamonds, pearls or jargoons, sometimes of 
graduated size. These borders were also used round medal- 
lions worked with hair under glass, or set with thin plaques of 
moss or milk agate. Such miniatures and medallions were 








sometimes mounted in gold, chased with an all-over pattern 
of flowers. Similar decoration was used for the outer cases 
used to protect enamelled watches ; they were often made of 
horn or tortoiseshell painted with figures or in imitation of 
moss agate. 

The XVIII century witnessed great advances in the 
artificial lighting of houses and a consequent lengthening of 
the social day. Evening entertainments became more and 
more important, and glittering jewels which would have a 
good effect in candle light were needed to complete the 
toilette. At the same time the growth of material prosperity 
led to a demand for a profusion of jewels which it was some- 
times difficult to satisfy. Hervey says of Queen Caroline 1 
that she wore at her coronation not only the pearls of Queen 
Anne, " but she had on her head and shoulders all the pearls 
and necklaces she could borrow from the ladies of quality 
at one end of the town, and on her petticoat all the 
diamonds she could hire of the Jews and jewellers at the 
other quarters." Much work in paste, marcassite and cut 
steel was produced to satisfy the need for glitter at a relatively 
small cost. 

English work in paste can only be distinguished from 
French by its clumsier workmanship and heavier design. 
Paste diamonds were sometimes set with paste opals in floral 
designs with happy effect, and coloured paste gems were 
often mounted in settings of marcassite. Occasionally opal 
pastes, " diamond " pastes, and small marcassites were 
combined in the same jewel, giving a remarkable effect of 

1 Quoted, Jones, Precious Stones, p. 367. 


soft brilliance. Much jewellery was produced ornamented 
with marcassites alone ; set in floral designs (Plate XXIX, 
i and 4) in clusters and girandoles (Plate XXX, 4), or in 
regular linked patterns. (Plate XXX, 5.) Linked necklaces 
of English work occasionally have both sides of the links set 
with marcassites. The designs of marcassite jewellery can 
nearly all find exact parallels in diamond work. 

Cut steel was a substitute for diamonds, of English 
invention and English manufacture, imitated but not equalled 
abroad. It was one of the first kinds of jewellery to be 
manufactured in England on a large scale, the factories of 
Boulton and Watt and other firms at Sheffield, Birmingham, 
and Wolverhampton, turning out considerable quantities for 
the home market and the export trade. This steel-work was 
of three kinds : faceted beads, faceted studs set gem-fashion 
in plates of steel, and ornamental links and other motives 
made in one piece. All three types were often combined in 
a single ornament together with fictile cameos or enamels. 
Steel beads were commonly used with those of Wedgwood 
ware in necklaces and chatelaines, and steel " gems " formed 
the usual setting of Wedgwood plaques in clasps, chatelaines 
and other ornaments. (Plate XXXI.) Cut steel was much 
used for buttons, those made by a Birmingham man of the 
name of Heeley, who worked for Wedgwood about 1780, 
being considered especially fine. 

The English middle classes in the XVIII century 
attained a sober prosperity, which led them to emulate the 
fashions of the aristocracy in less costly forms. Pastes, mar- 
cassites, and cut steel served instead of diamonds, Battersea 



and Bilston enamel instead of the delicate productions of the 
French enamellers, and jewels mounted with miniature 
plaques of agate in settings of gold, jargoons or garnets were 
substitutes for more costly gems. Pinchbeck had a diminished 
vogue, but the Sheffield plate made by Thomas Law & Co. 
was used to mount cameos and chatelaines, and other larger 
ornaments were made of Sheffield copper-gilt. Ornaments 
of paste, marcassite, steel, and semi-precious stones were, 
however, commonly worn by the upper classes on ordinary 
occasions, when their richer jewels would have been as much 
out of place as Court dress, and consequently the design 
of such ornaments was influenced by cultivated taste, and 
never acquired a definitely bourgeois character. 

The forms of jewels did not suffer any great modification 
in the XVIII century, though all were affected by the 
changing tendencies of design. Sevignd bow brooches con- 
tinued to be worn with ear-rings en suite with three pendants, 
known as girandoles. Designs for these jewels by Dinglinger 
and Saint shew that their form was standardized however 
much their details might differ. Pendants of similar design 
were incorporated into necklaces as a central ornament. A 
typical paritre is shewn in a mezzotint of Queen Charlotte 
published by Thomas Frye in 1762 : four strings of pearls 
and a suite of jewels tiara, girandole ear-rings in seven 
sections, sevignd and pendant all set with diamonds. The 
growing influence of mere fashion on the design of jewels 
helped to drive such traditional ornaments out of favour in the 
second half of the century. Ear-rings were peculiarly subject 
to these changes. The girandole was succeeded by the clip 


ear-rings formed of two large stones familiar in portraits of 
the time of Reynolds. The Lady s Magazine gives precise 
instructions on this point. In March, 1774, small drop ear- 
rings were worn, but in July of the same year the notice i:< no 
ear-rings " was considered so important that it is printed in 
capitals. 1 By I79O, 2 however, "the ear-rings most in fashion 
were clump ear-rings, in the shape of a large button of 
gold. This fashion was brought over from Paris by Lady 
Duncannon. Others, which were likewise much worn, by far 
the most becoming, were long ear-rings of fine fillagree work." 
This style of ornament continued in fashion; in I794, 3 'the 
fashionable ear-rings were in double rings of fillagree gold 
mixed with brilliants, pearls, and enamel, the necklaces to suit." 
Two years later, 4 pierced gold ear-rings were still worn, but 
were square in shape. By I797, 5 however, double gold ear- 
rings, long and globe-shaped, set with pearls, and large gold 
hoops were worn. 

The same influence is apparent in the form of necklaces 
and the manner of wearing them. In i78o 6 " Pearls round 
the neck in falls" were worn for full dress, and in the following 
year 7 a loosely tied row of pearls, or a netted pearl chain were 
fashionable. In I79O 8 the modish necklace consisted of two 
rows of fine filigree work, the lower hanging below the waist, 
and eight years later 9 enamelled chains and necklaces of 
diamonds set in collets and linked together were worn at 
Court, and strings of garnets on ordinary occasions. In 1799 

1 Lady's Magazine, p. 379. 2 June, p. 315. 3 June, p. 321. 

4 December, 1796, p. 564. 5 April, p. 149. August, p. 404. 

7 June, p. 287. 8 June, p. 315. 1798, June, p. 273. 



and 1 806 l a large gold chain or sautoir, supporting a medallion 
or breviare, was considered indispensable. 

The XVIII century was the age of buckles of all 
kinds. The use of shoe buckles had been revived after the 
Restoration, and clasps of various sorts were used to adorn 
the dress at the beginning of the century. Many diamond 
buckles, and even more " loops and buttons " of rose and 
brilliant cut diamonds are mentioned in the bills and inven- 
tories of Queen Mary, Queen Anne and Sarah Duchess of 
Marlborough. 2 Beau Nash introduced a larger and more 

splendid form of shoe buckle about 1730, and the Monsieur 
a la Mode of 1753, says of a dandy : 

" His buckles like diamonds must glitter and shine, 
Should they cost fifty pounds, they would not be too fine." 

The Ladys Magazine affords various indications of the 
fashion in the latter half of the XVIII century; in 1774 
we are informed 3 that blond lace is worn fastened with a 
diamond buckle ; six years later the " dishabille " is completed 
by a narrow black collar buckled round the neck ; and in 
1784* the fashionable "Rutland gown" was confined at the 
waist by a belt of black velvet, buckled on the left side with 
a diamond buckle, while the rival " Robinson Vest " had the 
bodice fastened in front with a series of small buckles of 
diamonds or pearls. At this time there are also many 
references to " Brilliant roses on the shoes," and in March, 
1783, "diamonds buckles to the glove strings' 3 were worn. 6 
All these buckles were generally of square, oblong, or oval 

1 April, p. 185. 2 B.M., Add. MSS., 29316 and 5751. s July, p. 379. 

4 March, p. 154. * p. 121. 


shape, plainly set with diamonds, brilliant or ruby pastes, cut 
steel, or marcassite. The more elegant examples shew the 
wreath and flower patterns of the French designers. The 
pattern book published by Jean Guien in 1762, gives two 
pretty buckles set with diamonds (Plate XXIX, 3), apparently 
to be worn at the waist. The French Revolution, however, 
killed the fashion for shoe buckles, and after 1 800 hardly any 
were worn. At the end of the XVI 1 1 century the women's 
classical robes were held together with girdles fastened with 
buckles or clasps of cut steel and Wedgwood medallions. 
The steel buckles were generally oblong or oval in shape, 
and had the rim studded with simple rosette patterns in cut 
steel in beaded settings. 


The chatelaine was almost universally worn by men and 
women alike, at first with but little change of form and a 
growing elaboration of detail in its decoration and appendages. 
Soon after 1770 the Macaronis introduced a chatelaine of a 
new kind. Instead of terminating in a hook, it ended in an 
ornamental medallion, from which hung tassels and charms, 
while the supporting chains were slightly longer. This must 
have been held in place by the waistbelt, so that the watch 
and the tassels both hung down. The Smart Bequest con- 
tains some fine examples of this type ; one, made about 1770, 
by J. Schrapnell (Plate 4), has the tops of the tassels, the 
plaque, and the back of the watch of translucent purple 
enamel, set with lustrous pearls and tiny diamonds ; the 
tassels are of pearls, while the chains are composed of linked 
groups of three pearls. Another specimen, so similar that 
it is probably by the same hand, has the back of the watch 


ornamented with a medallion containing hair, and the initials 
M.C.A. in minute seed pearls, while from the plaque hang 
tassels, watch-key, seal, and a tiny magnifying glass, all 
enamelled to match. Fobs were also worn, one end hung 
with a watch and the other with a heavy seal, a dummy watch, 
or fausse-montre. This was made to match the real watch or 
to imitate it in cheaper materials, and served to hold a 
miniature, mirror, pin-cushion, or vinaigrette. Innumerable 
seals were made to hang from fob and chatelaine, usually set 
with an intaglio gem in a gold mount. Seals were among 
the early products of Wedgwood, some of his finest specimens 
being in the hard Jasper ware. They included classical and 
Renaissance intaglios as well as initials and monograms. 
Many were set by Boulton, of Birmingham, in tortoiseshell, 
steel, and gold, but some were made with a shank of the 
ware itself and needed no further mounting. Rings also 
were sometimes appended to the fob ; they may be recognized 
by a small loop for suspension at the back of the hoop. 
One in the British Museum has the hoop and sides of the 
bezel chased with grapes and vine leaves, and is set with a 
violet topaz (Plate XXXII, 7); another has a bezel in the 
form of a watch-key. Rings were also used to adorn other 
parts of the dress; the Ladys Magazine for July, I774, 1 
recommends " Fine blond lace in puffs drawn through 
diamond rings," and in September 2 ' narrow blond puffs . . . 
crossed and drawn through a ring, generally a diamond hoop 
ring." These jewelled hoop rings were also set with coloured 
stones and paste, and sometimes with a series of stones, each 

1 p. 379- * p- 487- 


of a different colour, when they were known as Harlequin 
rings. These stones of various colours are also found in 
rings with a ruby, emerald, garnet, amethyst, ruby, and 
diamond so set that their initials form the word Regard. 
Sometimes as in an example in the British Museum (Plate 
XXXII, 9) each stone is set on a separate wire hoop, the 
wires being joined by the junction of the stones on the bezel. 
These rather ugly multiple rings are also found joined by a 
long enamelled bezel l or by a line of diamonds. 2 Of a 
similar type are the puzzle rings of the time, made of as many 
as seven hoops of fine gold wire interlaced or knotted 
together. 3 

With the end of the XVIII century the French fashion 
of the marquise or long bezel reached England. Its larger 
field was sometimes used to contain a miniature generally 
of a lady mourning beside a willow or an urn but more often 
the field was enamelled in dark translucent blue or purple, and 
set with diamonds or pearls. 

At the end of the XVIII century classical motives were 
modified to meet a desire for elegance, with a consequent loss 
of strength and meaning. The French pattern-books of the 
time shew stereotyped designs, wholly lacking in originality 
though graceful in form, and jewels of the same type reproduce 
these patterns with a mechanical perfection of workmanship. 
This good craftsmanship found its best expression in orna- 
ments, such as watches and chatelaines, made of relatively 
inexpensive materials. These were often decorated with trans- 

1 e.g. B.M., No. 2171. 2 e.g. B.M., No. 2170. 

3 e.g. Fortnum Collection, Ashmolean Museum, Nos. 611-15. 



lucent enamel in plain colours. A typical chatelaine and 
watch in the Smart Bequest made by Green and Ward about 
1790 has the back of the watch of translucent yellow enamel, 
centred with a large diamond surrounded by tiny circles of 
diamonds and pearls, and rimmed with opaque lilac enamel 
with a miniature decoration in white. Much work was 
produced decorated with circles of diamonds and pearls on a 
ground of translucent blue, green, or purple enamel. 

Geometrical patterns were common, either rectilinear 
(Plate XXXII, 8), or formed of oval medallions linked by 
strings of beads. (Plate XXXII, n.) The only other 
fashionable style of decoration was naturalistic ; daisies, 
butterflies, and similar designs were used for brooches 
mounted a jour with diamonds in the light and almost in- 
visible fashion that had superseded the chased and enamelled 
settings of the preceding centuries. (Plate XXXII, 5.) 
Many jewels were designed solely for the display of valuable 
stones, and had as little beauty and almost as great intrinsic 
value as the famous collier of Marie Antoinette. The ostenta- 
tious display of diamond jewellery of this kind maybe illustrated 
from the account of the dresses worn at the King's Birthday 
Drawing-room in June, 1800, in the Lady 's Magazine?- 

" Her Majesty was magnificently attired in a lilac crape 
petticoat . . . with five superb diamond bands, composed of 
collets, and fifteen large brilliant roses and stars, at equal 
distances on the bands ; these bands were terminated at the 
bottom with four very magnificent bows and tassels of diamonds 
and large pearls, from which were also suspended festoons of 

1 June, 1800, p. 302. 



beautiful pearls in wreaths ; over the left side flowed two 
corners of lilac crape, edged with diamond chains and pearls, 
with pearl tassels at bottom, and fastened at the pocket holes 
with a superb diamond and pearl bow ; all the diamond and 
pearl bands and chains being displayed to great advantage by 
being placed on wreaths of purple jessamine leaves. . . . 
Her Majesty wore a superb diamond stomacher and necklace 
and a beautiful diamond bouquet ; her head-dress was chiefly 
composed of a magnificent diamond bandeau, with brilliant 
drops of immense value ; in short, her Majesty's whole dress 
was never decorated with such profusion of diamonds and 
pearls, and in point of value greatly surpassed anything of the 
sort ever displayed in this or any other kingdom." 

The last years of the VIII century saw the beginning 
of a new chapter in the history of English jewellery. The 
principle of manufacture on a large scale, first used for the 
English inventions of fictile medallions and cut steel, came to 
be extended to other forms of jewellery, until the whole art 
was industrialized. Embossing, stamping, and a hundred 
devices for multiplication drove out the varied processes of the 
individual craftsman from all but exceptional work. The 
workshops were for the most part merged in the factory, and 

these in their turn were concentrated in such centres as 

At the same time the influence of the cultivated public 
was seriously diminished. The manufacturing and mercantile 
classes, enriched but not educated by the progress of industry, 
became the most important part of the purchasing public, and 
lowered the general level of taste to their own. 



Moreover, political and social upheavals in France not 
only severed her relations with England, but also made the 
first serious break in her own artistic traditions since she had 
existed as a nation. The craft guilds were dissolved, a 
generation of trained workmen was missing, the system 
of apprenticeship was weakened, and the educated patrons 
of art were impoverished or exiled. With the gradual return 
of prosperity, wealth passed, in France as in England, into 
the hands of those who had not inherited or acquired a fine 
taste in art, and though the general level of taste was higher 
in France than in England, French craftsmen had also to 
produce what the bourgeois enrichi demanded. Thus for the 
first time in history France was brought down to the level 
of England in the minor arts. For a time she could no 
longer inspire the productions of other countries. These 
conditions forced the jeweller Odiot, in 1815, to send his son 
to London to study the English methods of gold-work, which 
had ceased to be artistic and traditional and had become 
mechanical and industrial. Shining polished metal in plain 
and tasteless forms, showy settings of semi-precious stones, 
were as much to bourgeois liking in the one country as in the 
other, and until French taste began to revive about 1830 
under a new Romantic stimulus from Italy and Spain, the 
fine tradition of goldsmith's work was drowned in a wave of 
industrial anglomania. 



Abingdon brooch, 9 
Aglets, 103 

Agnus Dei, 23, 39, 60, 98, 106 
Aigrettes, 116 
Alfred jewel, 21 
Allegorical subjects, 98 
Anglomania, 155 
Anglo-Saxon art, 2-15, 20-25 
Animal patterns, 4, 10, 16, 27, 94, 114 
Applique ornament, 141, 142 
Arabesques, 72, 76, 77 
Architecture, influence of Roman, 3 

- of Gothic, x, 29, 30, 32, 43, 46, 49 

- of classical, 139, 143 
Ardagh chalice, 16 
Ardvorlich Clach Dearg, 56 
Armada jewels, 91, 92 

" Backwork on crystal," 101, 115 

Badges. See Heraldic designs 

Barbor jewel, 97 

Battersea enamels, 144, 146 

Bell shrines, 16 

Belts, jewelled, 28, 32, 54, 63, 85 

Betrothal rings, 55 

Bilston enamels, 144, 147 

Bird designs, 4, 8, n, 16, 17, 18, 31, 

95, "9 
Bodkins, jewelled, 104 

Bracteates, Anglo-Saxon, 3, 7 
" Bristows," 99 

Brooches, Anglo-Saxon, 7-12 

- annular, 9 

- bird's head, n 

- cruciform, 10 

- disc-shaped, 8, 9 

- horse-headed, n 

- radiated, n 

- S-shaped, n 

- saucer-shaped, 9 

- tortoise-shaped, 12 

- mediaeval ring-brooches, 30 

- of Edward I, 31, 32 

- late, 39, 40, 43 

- on rosaries, 61 

- XVII century, 133 
Buckles, Anglo-Saxon, 12 

- XVIII century, 149 
Burgundian influence, 43, 52 
Byzantine influence, 24, 25 

Cadboll brooch. See Rogart brooch 
Cameos and Intaglios, 28, 31, 48, 51, 

96, 97, 98, 106, 113, 125, 137, 143 
Campion pendant, 100, 102 
Carcanets. See Necklaces 
Castellani brooch, 22 
Celtic jewellery, 16-21 

- Revival, xi 
Chains, 70, 113, 132 
Chatelaines, 135, 136, 137, 140, 141, 

142, 143, 146, 147, 150, 151, 152, 153 


i 5 8 


Chinoiseries, x, 142 

Christianity, influence of, 14, 23, 26, 

29, 57, 68 

Civil War, influence of, 118, 131, 132 
Classical Revival, 136, 137, 139 

- Subjects, Alexander and Diogenes, 

Andromeda, 136 

- Antony and Cleopatra, 136 

- Cleopatra, 98 

- Fama Perennis, 98 
Lucretia, 98 

- Mars, Venus and Cupid, 98 

- Narcissus, 98 

- Neptune, 98 

- Phcebus and Daphne, 98 

- Pyramus and Thisbe, 84 
Coffin pendants, 127 

Coins, Roman, 3, 13, 14 
Collars, jewelled, 52, 53 

- of knighthood, 79 

- of livery, 40, 42 

- of SS, 39, 40, 41, 42, 52, 53 
Coronets, 35, 37, 64 

Crosses, 13, 14, 54, 69, 70, 113, 119 

Crown of Scotland, 77 

Crucifixes, 60 

Crusades, influence of, 26 

Crystal, jewels of, 101, 102, 106, 115, 

Crystals, quartz, 99 

Dagger-pommel, gold, 7 
Darnley jewel, 88 
Decade rings, 62 
Diamond-cutting, no, 112 
Drake pendant, 97 
Dresses, jewelled, 33, 78, 79 

Ear-picks, jewelled, 81, 135 
Ear-rings, 85, 86, 147, 148 
single, 118 

Ear-strings, 118 
Ecclesiastical jewels, 46-51 
Elizabethan art, 109 

- portrait jewels, 91, 92, 96, 99 
Emblems, 79, 87, 88 
Enamel, on Alfred jewel, 21, 22 

- Battersea, 144, 146 

- Bilston, 144, 147 

- Byzantine, 22 

- champleve, 34, 46, 72, 76, 100, 120, 

- cloisonne, 18, 21, 22, 101, 113 

- en resille sur verre, 121, 122 

en ronde bosse, 32, 34, 35, 72, 100 

- en faille d'epargne, 141 

- Limoges, 33, 34 

- Lombardic, 22 

mediaeval, 34 

- painted, 122, 123, 134 

- silhouette, 120 

- translucent, 34, 48, 153 
Engraved designs for jewels, 77, 100, 

101, 120, 121, 123, 139, 140, 141, 
Enseignes, mediaeval, 37 

Renaissance, 72, 73 
Episcopal rings, 50, 51 
Equipages. See Chatelaines 

Fan-handles, jewelled, 101, 106, 107 

Fausses-montres, 151 

Fermails, 44, 45 

Fetterlock badge, 39, 53 

Feudalism, influence of, 26 

Fibula, forms of, 7, 8 

Fictile plaques, 142, 143, 146, 150, 151 

Figure work, mediaeval, 32, 43 

Renaissance, 72, 74, 75 

XVII century, 123, 134 

XVIII century, 143 

Filigree, Anglo-Saxon, 5, 6 

Filigree, Celtic, 16 

XVII century, 135 

Five wounds, 58 

Fob-rings, 151 

French influence, x,.-8, n, 28, 29, 118, 

Iig, 120, 121, 122, 123, 125, 132, 

137, 141, 143 

Garter, collar of the, 79, 80 

- George of the, 79, 80, 81, 123 
Gem-cutting, 98, 99, no, in, 112 

- setting, 119 

German influence, 71, 120, 122 
Giardinetti rings, 141 
Gimmel rings, 55, 56, 93 
Girandoles, 133, 146, 147 
Glenlyon brooch, 44 
Glenorchy stone of Breadalbane, 56 
Gloves, jewelled, 32, 50 
Goldsmiths' Company, 28, 29, 51 
Gothland, ix, i 

Hair jewellery, 130 

ornaments, 35, 64 

Hall-mark, 29 

Hat ornaments, 37, 72, 73, 116 

Head ornaments, 85, 88, 117 

Heart-shaped brooches, 45 

Henry VI, Pilgrim's sign, 39 

Heraldic designs, 39, 40, 42, 52, 53, 54 

IHS pendants, 70 

Industrial Revolution, xii, 154, 155 

Initials, 77, 114, 135 

Inlaid work in garnets, 5, 6 

Inscriptions, amatory, 45, 54, 55, 93, 


Inscriptions, religious, 59, 62, 74, 127, 

moral, 55 

owners' names, 19, 21, 23, 24 

personal mottoes, 54, 78, 93 

- talismanic, 45, 58, 59, 63 
Interlaced work, 4, 16 
Ireland, ix, 3 

- late Celtic art in, 2, 4 
Irish influence, 20 
Ivory, jewels of, 6 

Jade, prophylactic use of, 102 
Jutes, art of, 5 

Kells, book of, 19 

" King's Pledges," 129 

Kingston brooch, 6, 9 

Lennox jewel, 88 
Loch Buy brooch, 59 
Lorn, brooch of, 59 
Lyte jewel, 112, 120 

Magical jewels, Anglo-Saxon, 13 

- Elizabethan, 102 

- mediaeval, 56 

Marcassite, 134, 142, 145, 146, 147, 


Marquise rings, 152 
Medusa head, 3 
Memento Mori jewels, 126 
Memorial jewels, 58, 123, 126, 127, 128, 

129, 130, 144, 145, 152 
Miniature frames, 108, 135, 141, 144 
Mitres, 46-50 
Montres d'abbesse, 122 
Moors' heads, 98, 114 
Morses, 29, 32, 34 
Mother-of-pearl jewels, 84, 85, 92, 93, 

94, 98, 99, 100, 103, 104, 127 
Mourning rings. See Memorial jewels. 



Narwhal's horn. See Unicorn's horn 
Naturalistic designs, 43, 93, 94, 123, 

Necklaces, 14, 24, 53, 65, 66, 104, 105, 

119, 148, 149 
Netherlands, influence of, x, 43, 71, 

135, 137. 140 
Niello, 18, 22, 115 
Nomadic life, arts in, I 
Norman art, 26, 27 

Oriental influence, ix, x, i, 4, 25, 57, 

76, 137, 142 
Ouches, 39, 40, 43 
Oxus, Treasure of, 4 

Pallium pins, 50 
Paste, Anglo-Saxon, 6 

- cameos and intaglios, 96, 113, 143 

- mediaeval, 46, 48 

Renaissance, 99 

- XVII century, 134 

- XVIII century, 145, 146, 150 
Patron Saints, 57, 59 

St. Barbara, 58 

- St. Catherine, 39, 59 

St. Christopher, 39, 44, 58 

- St. Edmund, 39 

- St. George, 39, 44, 52, 58, 73 

- St. Hubert, 39 
St. James, 39 

- St. John the Baptist, 59, 72 

- St. Leonard, 39 

- St. Michael, 35, 73 

- St. Paul, 32 
St. Peter, 31, 32 

St. Thomas a Becket, 39, 58 
Pea-pod designs, 121 
Pearls, 63, 105, 118, 134, 148 

baroque, 100 
Penannular brooches, 17-20, 24 

Pendants, 13, 14, 31, 35, 52, 57, 59, 
61, 65, 66, 69, 70, 73, 74, 76, 77, 78, 
80, 84, 88-91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 97, ioo, 
102, 113, 116, 120, 122, 127, 144, 

146, 147 

Penruddock jewel, 76 
Perpendicular style, 68 
Persia, inlaid work from, 6 
Petrossa, treasure of, 4, 6 
Pewter brooch, 24 
beads, 24 
Phoenix badge, 90, 91 

- jewel, 91 
Pilgrim's signs, 37 
Pinchbeck, 135, 147 
Pomanders, 83, 84, 103, 105, 106, 107 
Portcullis badge, 54 
Precious stones, 56, 62, 71, 75, 132, 
145 and passim 

Quartz crystals, 99 

Reformation, influence of, 70 

Regard rings, 152 

Reliquaries, 14, 59, 60 

Renaissance, influence of, x, 71 

Retainer's badges, 37 

Rings, 22, 23, 27, 50, 51, 55, 56, 58, 

62, 63, 64, 70, 93, 104, 126, 127, 128, 

129, 130, 131, 151, 152 
Ring-brooches, 44, 45 
Ring-dials, jewelled, 107 
Rocaille decoration, 140 
Rogart brooch, 19 
Roman influence, i, 2, 3, 7, 14, 27 
Romantic influence, xi, 140 
Rosaries, 61, 62, 65, 68, 84 

Sarre brooch, 4, 9 
Savernake, belt of Horn of, 54 



Scandinavian influence, ix, 3, 8, 12, 13, 
^ 25, 27 
Scotland, 3 

- magical jewels in, 56 

- ring brooches in, 44 
Scriptural subjects, 32, 72, 84 

- Old Testament, Abraham, 84 

- Brazen Serpent, 83, 98 

- Caleb and Joshua, 98 

- Creation, 127 

- David, 84 

- Israelites passing through 
the Red Sea, 98 

- Jacob's Dream, 84, 98 

- Moses, 84 

- Noah, 84 

- Solomon, 83, 84 

- Susannah, 84 

- Tobias, 98 

- New Testament, Annunciation, 

30, 47- 50 

- Assumption of the Virgin, 


- Christ healing the palsied 
man, 84 

- Conversion of St. Paul, 134 

- Crucifixion, 39 

- Magi, 30, 31 

- Nativity, 30, 35 

- Passion, 73, 84 

- Presentation in the 
Temple, 30 

- Resurrection, 35, 59, 127 

- Temptation, 39 

- Trinity, 58, 73 

- Virgin and Child, 31, 32, 

34. 39- 58, 73 

Seals, 30 loi, 124, 125, 135, 151 
Serpents' tongues, 56 
Sevignts, 133, 147 

Sheffield plate, 147 

Ship pendants, 95, 96, 114 

" Spanish work," 76 

Steel, 145, 146, 147, 150, 151 

Sumptuary laws, 33 

Szilagy Somlyo, treasure of, 6 

Tabulets, 52, 77, 82, 107 

Tara brooch, 18, 19 

Tassie pastes, 143 

Tau crosses, 69, 74 

Tenners, 61 

Theophilus, Schedula diversarum artium 


' Three Brethren," 75, 116 
Toadstones, 57, 102 
Toothpicks, jewelled, 81 
Touches, 57 
Trichinopoly chain, 18 
Tudor rose, 53, 73, 76, 91, 92, 113 
Tulipomania, 123 

Ugadale brooch, 60 
Unicorn's horn, 57, 102 

Valentines, 131 
Verroterie cloisonnee, 5, 6 
Viking art, 24 

Wars of the Roses, influence of, 51, 62 

Watch cases, 134, 145 

Watches, 107, 108, 115 

Wedding rings, 55, 93, 130, 131 

Whistles, jewelled, 100 

Wild jewel, 96 

Woodwork, patterns derived from, 3 





Abingdon, brooch from, 9 
Acton, John, 114 
Aelfgiva, brooch of, 24 
Aidan, St., 15 
Alfred, crown of, 132 

- jewel of, 21 
Alfriston, brooch from, 9 
Algeria, penannular brooches from, 17 
Angell, John, 72 

Anjou, Duke of, gift to Elizabeth, 93 
Ankere or Anketill, 23 
Anne, Queen, jewels of, 137, 149 

- memorial ring of, 130 
Anne of Cleves, portrait of, 76 
Anne of Denmark, jewels of, in, 114 

- portrait of, 117 
Anthony, Dericke, 109 
Armagh, 16 

Arthur, Prince of Wales, portrait of, 72 
Arundel, Beatrice, Countess of, effigy 

of, 64 

Arundel, Joan, Countess of, effigy of, 53 
Arundel, Richard, Earl of, will of, 36, 

Ash-next-Sandwich Church, brass in, 


Ashwellthorpe Church, effigy in, 36 
Aston Church, monument in, 52 
Atkins, Robert, watch by, 143 

Backwell, Edward, 132 
Bacon, Sir Nathaniel, will of, 102 
Bacton, cross from, 14 
Ballycottin Bog, brooch from, 25 
Bangor Cathedral, effigy in, 61 
Barbor, William, jewel of, 97 
Baret, John, will of, 54, 55 

Barrington, brooch from, 31 
Battersea enamels, 144, 146 
Beaufort, badge of, 54 
Berengaria of Navarre, effigy of, 28 
Berkeley, Thomas Lord, effigy of, 53 
Berkshire, brooches from, 8 
Bifrons, brooch from, 12 
Bilston enamels, 144, 147 
Birckenhultz, Paul, designs of, 114 
Birmingham, cut steel manufactured 

at, 146 

Blickling Church, brass in, 66 
Bohun, badge of, 53 
Boileau, Etienne, 34 
Boleyn, Anne, 99 

- jewels of, 81, 82 

- portrait of, 78 
Bordier, 122 
Boulton, Matthew, 151 
Boulton and Watt, 146 

Bouquet, Daniel, watches by, 121, 123 
Brassington Moor, necklace from, 14 
Brechin, Cathedral Chapter of, seal of, 


Brednothus, Abbot of Ely, 23 
Brocklehurst, Mr. H. Dent, picture 

belonging to, 69 

Bromsgrove Church, effigy in, 64 
Brooke, Lord, watch of, 115 
Broxbourne Church, brass in, 66 
Bruce, Robert, crown of, 77 
Brussels, Alexander of, 72 
Buckingham, George, Duke of, 117 
Bunbury Church, effigy in, 64 
Burgh, Hubert de, 56 
Buttery, Mr. Ayerst, portrait belonging 

to, 73 
Bysse, Edward, watch by, 115 



Cade, Jack, 56 

Calveley, Sir Hugh, effigy of, 64 

Cambridgeshire, saucer - shaped 

brooches from, 10 

Campbells of Glenlyon, brooch of, 44 
Campion, Lieut. -Col. W. R., pendant 

belonging to, 100, 102 
Canterbury, 3, 15 
brooches from, 24, 27 

- Cathedral, effigy in, 37 

- jewels of, 50, 70 
Caroline of Anspach, jewels of, 145 
Castle Donnington Church, brass in, 60 
Cavalcanti, 72 
Chad, St., 15 
Chalk, Agnes, 36 
Chardin, Sir John, 132 
Charles I, jewels of, 118, 122, 125 

- memorial jewels of, 128, 129 

- portrait of, 121 
Charles II, George of, 123 
Charles VI of France, 42 

Charles the Bold of Burgundy, jewel 

of, 75 
Chaucer, Geoffrey, 35, 36, 44, 61 

Cheyne, Isabella, brass of, 66 
Cheyney, Sir John, brass of, 54 
Child, Sir Francis, 132 
Chippendale, Thomas, designs by, 142 
Claddagh, wedding rings from, 131 
Clare, badge of, 53 
Clare Castle, crucifix from, 60 
Clonmacnois, pin from, 20, 21 
Cobham, Thomas Lord, brass of, 60 
Consolavera, John Baptista de, 72 
Corvus, Johannes, portrait by, 85 
Coventry Park, ring from, 58 
Crecy, battle of, 33 
Cromwell, Oliver, miniature of, 123 
Crosby, Dame Agnes, effigy of, 53 
Cuthbert, St., 15 

- cross of, 14 
Cuxtone, brooch from, 24 

Dallas, James, jewel of, 124 
Davy, William, 72 
Desborough, necklace from, 14 
Despotin, Jasper, will of, 128 
Devonshire, Duke of, picture belonging 

to, 52 
Dinglinger, Sebastian Henry, designs 

by, 141 

Douglas, Lady Margaret, jewel of, 88 
Dowgate Hill, brooch from, 22 
Drake, Sir Francis, gift to Elizabeth, 


- jewels of, 97 

Drury, Lady Anne, will of, 127 
Dunfermline, Alexander, Earl of, seal 

of, 101 

Dunne, Sir John, portrait of, 52 
Dunstan, St., 23 
Diirer, Albrecht, designs by, 81 
Durham, 14, 26 
Durrow, 16 

East, Edward, watch by, 125 
East Anglia, brooches from, 8 
Edith, crown of, 132 
Edward the Confessor, cross of, 22 

- shrine of, 31 

Edward I, jewels of, 23, 31, 32, 57 
Edward II, jewels of, 32, 33, 56 
Edward III, jewels of, 43, 57 
Edward VI, 84 
Elizabeth, Queen, jewels of, 70, 78, 83, 

88, 102, 105, 106, 107 
Ella, ring of, 23 
Elsinus, Abbot of Ely, 23 
Eltham, ring from, 63 
Ely, 23, 24 

Ely, William of, morse of, 30 
Erdington family, monument of, 52 
Ethelbert of Kent, 5, 10 
Ethelswith of Mercia, ring of, 23 
Ethelwulf of Wessex, ring of, 23 



Exeter, 3 

Exmewe, Thomas, 72 

Fenwolf, Morgan, 72 
Firens, Pierre, designs by, 121 
Fitzhugh, Elizabeth Lady, will of, 65 
Fitz Lewes, Sir Richard, brass of the 

wives of, 69 

Fitzroy, Anne, seal of, 124 
Fitzwilliam, Sir William, portrait of, 


Flach, Thomas, designs by, 140 
Franks, Sir Wollaston, locket belonging 

to, 84 

Freeman, John, 72 
Fuggers of Augsburg, 75 

Gastrill, J., 136 

Gaveston, Piers, jewels of, 33 

Gloucester, 3 

Gloucester, Eleanor Duchess of, will 

of, 61 

Greenfield, Archbishop, ring of, 51 
Gregory, Jeremy, watch by, 125 
Gresham, Sir Thomas, chains of, 70 

wedding ring of, 93 
Groos, Oliver, effigy of, 53 
Guien, Jean, designs by, 150 

Halle, Elizabeth, brass of, 65 
Harcourt, Louis de, Patriarch Bishop 

of Bayeux, mitre of, 47 
Harcourt, Sir Robert, effigy of, 52 
Harewood Church, effigy in, 42 
Hatton, Sir Christopher, gifts to Eliza- 
beth, 88, 93 
Heeley, 146 

Heere, Lucas de, portrait by, 76 
Henrietta Maria of France, jewels of, 

Henrietta Maria of France, portraits 

of, 118, 119 

Henry III, jewels of, 30, 31 
Henry IV, effigy of, 37 

- jewels of, 41, 42, 43, 56, 63 
Henry V, jewels of, 41, 42, 52 
Henry VI, jewels of, 42, 52, 57 

portrait of, 54 

Henry VII, jewels of, 53, 57 
Henry VIII, jewellers of, 72 

- jewels of, 53, 70, 73, 75, 78, 80, 81, 

- portrait of, 72 

rosary of, 68, 69 
Heraclius I, coin of, 14 
Herbst, J. B., designs by, 139 
Heriot, George, in, 114 
Herne Church, brass in, 65 
Herrick, Nicholas, 109 
Herrick, William, 114 

Hill, Benjamin, watch by, 135 
Hilliard, Nicholas, miniatures by, 92, 

97, 108 
Holbein, Hans (the Younger), designs 

by, 71, 72, 73, 75, 76, 78, 82, 107 
Holland, arms of, 53 
Home, Earl of, ring belonging to, 99 
Hornelund, Jutland, brooches from, 

Hornick, Erasmus, of Nuremberg, 

designs by, 100 
Hornsey, ring found at, 55 
Howard, Catherine, jewels of, 70, 74, 


- miniature of, 69 
Howard, Sir Henry, jewels of, 53 
Howard, Sir John, jewels of, 65 
Hunterston brooch, 19 

Ingrave Church, brass in, 69 
Innocent III, Pope, 50 
Ireland, 15, 16 



Isle of Wight, jewels from, 5, 8 
Isleham Church, brass in, 66 
Ixworth, brooches from, 45, 46 

Jacobson, Philip, 114 
James I, 91 

- jewels of, in, 112, 116, 127 
James II, jewels of, 132, 136 
James II of Scotland, jewels of, 65 
James V of Scotland, jewels of, 77 
Jesus College, Oxford, MS at, 64 
John, King, jewels of, 28 
John of Gaunt, will of, 65 
John of Cambridge, 36 
Jones, Henry, watch by, 134 

Kayle, Hugh, 109 
Kent, jewels from, 5, 6, 7, 8, n 
Keriell, Jane, brass of, 65 
Kingston-on-Thames, brooches from, 

6. 9. 44 

Church, brass in, 65 

Langland, John, 37, 38, 56 
Law, Thomas, and Company, 147 
Le Blon, Michael, 122 
Ledyard, Adam, 61 
Lee, Sir Henry, portrait of, 104 
Le'gare, Gilles, designs of, 123 
Leicestershire, brooches from, n 
Le Mans, effigy at, 28 
Lennox, Matthew, Earl of, 88 
Leofnne, Abbot of Ely, 24 
Lincoln, 3 

- triple pin from, 20 
Lindisfarne, 15 
Llewellyn of Wales, 56 
London, 3 

Goldsmiths' Company of, 28, 29, 

Louis VII of France, diamond of, 70 
Lulls, Arnold, designs by, 116 
Lyte, Thomas, jewel of, 120 

Mabbe, John, 97, 127 
Macdougals of Lorn, brooch of, 59 
Macleans of Loch Buy, brooch of, 59 
Macneals of Firfergus, brooch of, 60 
Maiano, Benedetto da, 71 
Manby, George, 136 
March, badge of, 53 

- Edmund, Earl of, will of, 40 

- Philippa, Countess of, will of, 45 
Margaret of Anjou, rings of, 64 
Margaret of Denmark, portrait of, 66 
Markenfield, Sir Thomas, effigy of, 

Marlborough, Sarah Duchess of, jewels 

of, 149 

Martin, Sir Richard, 109 
Mary Tudor, jewels of, 70, 82, 84, 105, 


- portraits of, 69, 74, 85 
Mary II, jewels of, 149 

- memorial ring of, 130 
Mary of Modena, jewels of, 133 

- portrait of, 133 

- wedding ring of, 130 

Mary Queen of Scots, jewels of, 70, 89, 
96, 99, 100, 103, 104, 105, 106 

- portrait of, 108 

Masterson, Richard, watch by, 115 
Mauricius, coin of, 14 
Mazarin, Cardinal, 112 
Memlinc, Hans, portrait by, 52 
Mercia, brooches from, 8 
Migginton Church, brass in, 54 
Mignot, Daniel, of Augsburg, designs 

by, 101, 108 

Minster Lovel, jewel from, 22 
Moncornet, Balthasar, designs by, 123 
Monday, John, 72 

1 66 


Mor, Anthonis, portrait by, 104 
More, Sir Thomas, pendant of, 73 
Morland, George, enamel after, 143 
Moser, George Michael, 136, 143, 144 
Mudge, Thomas, watch by, 136 

Nash, Beau, 149 

New College, Oxford, crozier at, 35, 

mitre at, 46 

- unicorn's horn at, 57 

Newcastle, Elizabeth Duchess of, por- 
trait of, 118 

Norfolk, Duchess of, mitre belonging 
to, 48 
- Margaret Duchess of, will of, 53 

Northumbria, brooches from, 8 

Norway, Irish brooches from, 19 

Nouwen, Michael, watch by, 115 

O'Carryd, Thomas, 49 

O'Deagh, Cornelius, Bishop of Limerick 

mitre of, 49 

Oliver, Isaac, miniature by, 120 
Peter, miniature by, 121 
Osborne, Dorothy, 125 
Oxford, bracteate from, 3 
Oxford, John Earl of, will of, 80 
Oxfordshire, brooches from, 8 

Parr, Catherine, 76 

Partridge, Affabel, 109 

Penruddock, Sir George, jewel of, 76 

Pepys, Samuel, 131 

Perigal, Francis, watches by, 141, 


Perrers, Alice, jewels of, 63 
Perrins, Mr. Dyson, watches belonging 

to, 136, 137 
Peruzzi, Vincenzo, 112 

Petit ot, 122 

Peyton, Thomas, brass of wives of, 


Pinchbeck, Christopher, 135 
Portland, Duchess of, jewel belonging 

to, 124 
Preston, Richard de, 56 

Quin, Dr., 143 

Raleigh, Sir Walter, case of miniature 

of, 101 

- portraits of, 118 
Ramsay, David, watch by, 121 
Randolf, Brother John, 54 
Reavil, Miss, jewels belonging to, 


Reculver Beach, reliquary from, 59 
Redmayne, Sir Richard, effigy of, 


Rich, Lady Diana, 125 
- John, watch by, 141 
Richard Cceur-de-Lion, effigy of, 28 
Richard II, jewels of, 37, 40, 41, 42, 


Richard III, badge of, 42 
Richard, Abbot of St. Albans, 23 
Richardin, 34 

Rock, Canon, morse belonging to, 34 
Rouen, effigy at, 28 
Rovezzano, 71 
Russell, Earl of, gift to Elizabeth, 

Rutland, Duke of, miniature - case 

belonging to, 101 
Ryther Church, effigy in, 52 

Saffron Walden, pendant from, 25 
Saint, T. D., designs by, 141 
St. Albans, 23 



St. Gall, 16 

St. Paul's Cathedral, jewels of, 36, 


Salisbury Cathedral, brass in, 54 
Salvayn, Isabella, will of, 62 
Sarre, brooches from, 4, 9, 12 
Say, Dame Elizabeth, brass of, 66 
Schrapnell, J., watch by, 150 
Scotland, penannular brooches from, 

Scott, Sir Walter, 77 

Scrope of Upsal, John Lord, will of, 45 
Seymour, Jane, portraits of, 69, 78 
Shaw, Sir Edward, will of, 58 
Sheffield, cut steel manufactured at, 


Sherard, Mrs., 112 
Shore, Jane, jewels of, 65 
Skerne, John, brass of, 65 
Sloane, Sir Hans, 91 
Sloley Church, effigy in, 53 
Somerset, Robert Earl of, portraits of, 

Southampton, Earl of, portraits of, 


Spilman, John, in, 114 
Spratton Church, effigy in, 41 
Stafford, Hugh Earl of, Will of, 45 

- Lady, effigy of, 64 
Staindrop Church, effigy in, 64 
Stanton, cross from, 14 

- Harcourt Church, effigy in, 52 
Staunton, Agnes, brass of, 60 
Stonyhurst College, pendant at, 73 
Stubbes, Philip, 104, 105 
Suffolk, Charles Duke of, will of, 80 
Sussex, saucer-shaped brooches from, 3 

- Lady, 119 

Swinford, Sir John, effigy of, 41 

Taplow, buckle from, 13 
Tassie, James, 143 

Temple, Sir William, 125 
Thorpe, Edmund de, effigy of, 36 
Thuilst, watch by, 137 
Tiptoft, Joice, Lady, brass of, 66 
Torrigiano, 71 
Toussaint, Augustus, 144 
Toutin, Jean, designs by, 121 

- enamels by, 122, 123 
Trendar, Peter, 109 
Tuxford, brooch from, 12 
Twiselton, John, 72 
Tyldesley, Christopher, 41 

Uberti, Fazio degli, 63 

Upchurch, Agnus Dei case from, 60 

Utrecht, John of, 72 

Van der Goes, portrait by, 66 
Van Dyck, portrait by, 119 
Van Somer, portrait by, 117 
Vauquer, Jean, designs by, 123 
Vikings, 15 

Walsingham Priory, 38 
Walton, Isaak, will of, 128 
Warwick, badge of, 39 

- brooch from, n 

- Richard Earl of, will of, 54 
Wedgwood, Josiah, 143, 146, 150, 151 
Wentworth, Elizabeth Lady, portrait 

of, 117 
Wessex, saucer-shaped brooches from, 

West Kilbride, penannular brooch from 

Westminster Abbey, jewels of, 31, 32 

Westmorland, Ralph, Earl of, effigy 

of, 64 
Wilfred, St., 15 

1 68 


Williams, John, 114 
Willowe, John, watch by, 115 
Wilton (Suffolk), cross from, 14 
Winchester, 3 

Windsor, dagger pommel from, 7 
Woeiriot, designs by, 81 
Wolfsheim, pendant from, 6 
Wolsey, Cardinal, 82 
Wolverhampton, cut steel manu- 
factured at, 146 

Woodville, Elizabeth, portrait of, 66 
Worley, Nicholas, 72 
Wotton, Sir Henry, will of, 128 

Wykeham, William of, crozier of, 35, 


- mitre of, 46, 47 
gloves of, 50 

Wynchelese, Archbishop de, jewels of, 

York, 3 

- Guild of Corpus Christi, inventories 
of, 62 

Isabel Duchess of, will of, 36 
Youghal, brooch from, 25 



*' \ "- """"...i / / 

^t-\ 17 

X '. 10PO 


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NK Evans, Joan 

73^3 English jewellery from 

E9 the fifth century A.D. 

to 1800